Rehydroxylation [RHX] dating is a developing method for dating fired-clay ceramics. This reaction reincorporates hydroxyl OH groups into the ceramic material, and is described as rehydroxylation RHX. This weight increase provides an accurate measure of the extent of rehydroxylation. The dating clock is provided by the experimental finding that the RHX reaction follows a precise kinetic law: the weight gain increases as the fourth root of the time which has elapsed since firing. The concept of RHX dating was first stated in by Wilson and collaborators  who noted that "results The RHX method was then described in detail in  for brick and tile materials, and in relation to pottery in RHX dating is not yet routinely or commercially available.
The amount of water lost in the dehydration process and thus the amount of water gained since the ceramic was created is measured with a microbalance. Once that RHX rate is determined, it is possible to calculate exactly how long ago it was removed from the kiln. The RHX rate is largely insensitive to the ambient humidity because the RHX reaction occurs extremely slowly, and only minute amounts of water are required to feed it.
Sufficient water is available in virtually all terrestrial environments.
Neither systematic nor transient changes in humidity have an effect on long-term rehydroxylation kinetics, though they do affect instantaneous gravimetric measurements or introduce systematic error i. The rate of rehydroxylation is affected by the ambient temperature.
Thus, when calculating dates, scientists must be able to estimate the temperature history of the sample. The method of calculation is based on temperature data for the location, with adjustments for burial depth and long-term temperature variation from historical records.
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Any event involving exposure to extreme heat may reset the "clock" by dehydroxylating the specimen, as though it were just out of the kiln. For example, a medieval brick examined by Wilson and collaborators  produced a dating result of 66 years.
In fact this brick had been dehydroxylated by the intense heat of incendiary bombing and fires during World War II. The main application of the RHX technique is to date archaeological ceramics. Yet most archaeological material contains components which causes either addition mass gain or additional mass loss during the RHX measurement process. Though it has only been established on bricks and tiles of up to 2, years of age, research is continuing to determine whether RHX can be accurately used on any fired-clay material, for example earthenware of up to 10, years of age.
The original work of Wilson and co-workers was undertaken on construction materials, bricks and tiles. These studies have encountered issues with components within the ceramics causing either addition mass gain or additional mass loss during the RHX measurement process.
The quality of data generated by the Manchester and Edinburgh groups has been due to analysing fired-clay materials which do not contain these components. Efforts to successfully replicate the original work and overcome the challenges presented by archaeological ceramics are underway in several academic institutions worldwide.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Physical Review Letters.
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