No one knows for sure who made the first clay pipes. The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development. By tobacco smoking had been introduced to Europe. There is little doubt that the earliest pipes came from England.
Confirm. And dating kaolin pipes sense. Rather amusing
Not all makers marked their pipes and there was a lot of regional variation. In contrast, the majority of pipes in the north and west of the country were marked.
There were also different styles of mark in the different regions, which can also be used to identify where a pipe was made see Oswald Most heel stamps are found locally to where they were made but it is important to remember that some pipes were traded and so the style of bowl and mark must also be taken into consideration when looking for a maker. During the seventeenth century initial marks or symbols were also occasionally applied to the stem, usually a short way behind the bowl and orientated to face the smoker.
This style of marking becomes much more common from around in most areas, the main exceptions being East Anglia and the south-east.
In some areas roll-stamped stem borders were also used during this period, especially in the Midlands and north of the country, with notable production centres in Chester and Nottingham. Stem stamps are rare in most areas from the s onwards, with the exception of the west midlands and north west.
In the west midlands, especially in and around Broseley, full name stem stamps across the stem with relief lettering has been common during the eighteenth century and, from aboutthey were turned to read along the stem.
During the s the lettering on these Broseley area styles of mark changed from relief to incuse, and incuse stamped marks continued in use until the last Broseley factory closed in about In the north west the Liverpool makers started using long single line stamps with relief lettering from around the s and these continued in use until around the s.
They were placed along the top of the stem. For much of the eighteenth century bowl stamping was very rare anywhere, although a few large marks were used in the London area.
This style remained popular throughout the nineteenth century in the south east, with other areas adopting bowl stamping from the second half of the nineteenth century onwards, particularly for advertising marks or slogans.
Rubber stamped ink marks were also used for a similar purpose from the late nineteenth century onwards. These are usually arranged with the Christian name initial on the left hand side of the heel when the pipe is held as if being smoked and the surname initial on the right.
The Pre-Transition meerschaum marks in either, or The Transition kaolin either starts in, or, and marks in, or The Post-Transition era starts on one of those dates and continues on as the Barling factories are closed, the pipes are jobbed out to first English and later Danish makers, then made by an entirely new entity with english. Add to that the pipes sent from Belgium, Germany, France and Ireland, as well as the ones made in Virginia, and the quantity of these clay pipes being used in the North America was becoming immense. These early kaolin pipes were simple with a small bowl for holding the burning Nicotiana and a reasonably long stem. Many clay pipes have a maker's mark on them and these can not only provide an accurate date for the manufacture of the pipe but also an origin for it. Before the establishment of the railways in the mid-nineteenth century most pipes were produced in small family run workshops and generally only traded around miles from their place of.
Occasionally the mould maker got them mixed up but the convention is to always transcribe them in this order and then to note in any accompanying text if it is suspected that they should be read the other way round.
Moulded initials on the side of the heel or spur started to be used in the London area from around the s and, byhad become very common.
This style then persisted in the south east as the most frequent style of marking until the twentieth century, but it was not always very common in other parts of the country, the north-east of England being a notable exception.
The earlier marks always used lettering with serifs but sans-serif script was often used from the middle of the nineteenth century onwards. This was placed on the side of the bowl and usually only occurs on one side.
This style emerged during the late seventeenth century and continued in use until the late eighteenth century but its use was confined to the south-west of England and, in particular, to the Bristol area. Large quantities of pipes exported from Bristol to the Caribbean and North America have this sort of mark on them.
Dating kaolin pipes
This usually occurs in conjunction with other moulded bowl decoration. It is a small fragment of the upper wall and rim of the bowl mouth.
The earliest pipes, dating to about , had stems with 9/inch diameter bores. By this diameter had decreased to 4/64 of an inch. This change in diameter may have occurred because pipe stems became longer through time, requiring a smaller bore. Louis Binford later devised a mathematical formula to refine Harrington's method (Deetz Atkinson, David and Adrian Oswald The Dating and Typology of Clay Pipes Bearing the Royal Arms. The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacco Pipe III. Britain: the North and West, pp. BAR British Series British Archaeological Reports, Oxford. Rutter, J. A. and P. J. Davey Clay Pipes . Hole sizes in Pipe Stems - A way of dating? English Pipes: , , In the archaeological studies carried out on clay pipes (and believe me there are many!) mathematical formula's have been applied to explore the possibilities of dating them by the size of the hole in the stem.
The fragment incorporates a design motif consisting of upturned flames that would have originated lower on the bowland a decorative band around the rim. A mold seam is present indicating that this piece comes from the back of the bowl closest to the stem. The decorative elements are molded, not incised.
For those who enjoy collecting clay trade pipes, we have added additional notes about maker's marks and stem stamping based on the work of Robert F. Marx at the site of the sunken city of Port Royal, Jamaica in The study is focused on English made pipes, but provides a system of dating between and the mid 19th century.
Decorative molded pipe bowls like these became common after and were evolving into more elaborate forms after Following Oswal the morphology of this bowl fragment is suggestive of Type 13 Thin, short bowls, flared mouthflat spurs which after c. Because the fragment is small, there is some ambiguity in the type.
Love Smoking Clay Pipes
And nobody calls me mister! Nice finds and collection, Jay.
Good dating kaolin pipes think
You've started some great threads for all to enjoy, my friend. Clay pipes were first made in aboutcopied from Native American designs. It was considered polite to snap a small section from the end of the stem that had been in your mouth before passing the pipe back to the inn-keeper for the next customer to use.
Manual labourers recognised the shorter, stout stem as advantageous since you could work with both hands free while clamping the pipe securely between the teeth. So the term became used as a style for some pipes from about the mid 18th Century onwards, but not for Elizabethan examples and certainly not to pipes with a long stem.
Cutties were nevertheless loosely modelled on the original tavern designs which had a tulip-shaped bowl with or without a spur that slanted forwards at a steep angle, normally a slight bend to the stem and a tapered bit.
OK I no longer have questions about that stem now that I figured out the second pic shows your find held on top of the reproduction. There are exceptions to all of the above but those are good indicators.
Jul 23, Such pipes were often "scrounged" from taverns when at the end of their useful life. As pipes (and tobacco) became more affordable and better quality clays meant that a long stem was no longer necessary for a smooth smoke, manufacturers began to produce "cutty pipes" with a short, stout stem for use by labourers. Kaolin Clay Tobacco Pipe. The kaolin tobacco pipe is one of the most useful artifacts that might be encountered at historical archaeological sites, for their short use-life and easily recognizable stylistic evolution provide valuable dating cues (Noel Hume ; Oswald ). Jun 13, Archeologists first became cash crops under colonial pipes can range from ancient times following the pipe stem. Thus, sizes, also called kaolin clay pipes bearing the pipe dating by their sites because. Salt glazed buy essay online canada usually date: 2.
Looking at you example, it fails on some important elements of those criteria. With apologies for the copyright owner that I can no longer remember where this pic came fromI would put it stylistically similar to number 25 but without the spur. You describe it as smoother and denser. I would take that to mean it probably is kaolin.