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The focus at Winchester was meeting production quotas during a time of high demand. Winchester added the letters W A or A W to the bevel of the receiver. Saginaw Steering Gear in nearby Saginaw, MI was already engaged in the preparation for the manufacture of carbines along with providing subcontracted receivers for Inland.
The Irwin-Pedersen contracts were terminated by Ordnance. Irwin-Pedersen Numbers Reassigned to Saginaw at Grand Rapids Grand Rapids manufactured their own receivers as well as using viable IP marked and serialized receivers they had acquired in the takeover. Serial numbers IP had not yet used were used by S'G'. As were serial numbers from IP receivers that were scrapped. Saginaw Receivers with SG Subcontractor Markings Receivers produced at the Saginaw plant under subcontract to Inland initially had the SI receiver code on the left side of the receiver below the wood line.
The receiver code was soon changed to SG.
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Receivers with the SG receiver code were intended for use by Inland though they were also used by Saginaw. The serial numbers and manufacturer names identify who actually used the receiver.
SG and S'G' Mix of Receivers and Serial Numbers The data submitted for this serial number range is insufficient to reconstruct what was done by which of the two facilities with each others receivers. The data on these receivers, serial numbers, and prime contractor names is an ongoing research project that needs your help. Serial Number Range. Letter prefixes X through XD were initially allocated by Inland for carbines intended for internal use only.
The letters were followed by numbers i. XA through XD was assigned for use by their Engineering Section on carbines built for testing and evaluation by their engineers. The quantity of carbines used by their Engineering Section varied so the numbers with each prefix also varied. Inland later decided to present carbines as gifts to Inland employees, subcontractors, suppliers, members of the military or government, and others to show appreciation for their assistance and cooperation with Inlands war effort.
The serial numbers allocated to these carbines were as follows. This resulted in an unknown number of "presentation" carbines possibly having the same serial number as the earlier Engineering carbines. The carbines used for this purpose were not from inventory submitted to or accepted by the government.
Apr 14, I saw the thread on " Check Srial Numbers" but unless I missed it, it seems to only cover Garands. Is there a way to check the serial number for M1 carbines based on the reciever serial number? I'm curious if a rifle was rebarrled the date on the barrel would not be the same as when the reciever was manufactured. Jun 26, $ is a real good price for a Winchester Carbine. You should have gotten it, and just replace stock if need be. As far as dating by serial number, I don't think that would be very easy to do. Different manufacturers were assigned different ranges of serial numbers. So the guns were really not built in consecutive order.
Many were constructed using whatever parts were available. Ordnance found unsatisfactory the first series of prototype carbines submitted by several firearms companies and some independent designers. The first model was developed at Winchester in 13 days by William C. Roemer, Fred Humeston and three other Winchester engineers under supervision of Edwin Pugsley, and was essentially Williams' last version of the. The prototype was an immediate hit with army observers. After the initial army testing in Augustthe Winchester design team set out to develop a more refined version.
Williams participated in the finishing of this prototype. The second prototype competed successfully against all remaining carbine candidates in Septemberand Winchester was notified of their success the very next month. Standardization as the M1 carbine was approved on October 22, This story was the loose basis for the movie Carbine Williams starring James Stewart.
Contrary to the movie, Williams had little to do with the carbine's development, with the exception of his short-stroke gas piston design. Williams worked on his own design apart from the other Winchester staff, but it was not ready for testing until Decembertwo months after the Winchester M1 carbine had been adopted and type-classified. Winchester supervisor Edwin Pugsley conceded that Williams' final design was "an advance on the one that was accepted", but noted that Williams' decision to go it alone was a distinct impediment to the project,  and Williams' additional design features were not incorporated into M1 production.
In a memo written in fear of a patent infringement lawsuit by Williams, Winchester noted his patent for the short-stroke piston may have been improperly granted as a previous patent covering the same principle of operation was overlooked by the patent office. In the senior technical editor at the NRA contacted Edwin Pugsley for "a technical last testament" on M1 carbine history shortly before his death 19 Nov According to Pugsley, "The carbine was invented by no single man," but was the result of a team effort including Bill Roemer, Marsh Williams, Fred Humeston, Cliff Warner, at least three other Winchester engineers, and Pugsley himself.
As a result, the. A standard. By comparison, the. However, the carbine is twice as powerful as the. As a result, the carbine offers much better range, accuracy and penetration than those submachine guns.
Therefore, soldiers armed with the carbine can carry much more ammunition than those armed with a Tommy gun. Categorizing the M1 carbine series has been the subject of much debate. One characteristic of. This was the first major use of this type of primer in a military firearm. Because the rifle had a closed gas system, not normally disassembled, corrosive primers would have led to a rapid deterioration of the gas system. The M1 carbine entered service with a simple flip sight, which had two settings: and yards.
The M1 carbine entered service with a standard straight round box magazine. The introduction of the select-fire M2 carbine in October  also brought into service the curved round magazine or " Banana Clip ".
Perhaps the most common accessory used on the M1 carbine was a standard magazine belt pouch that was mounted to the right side of the stock and held two extra round magazines.
This field adaptation was never officially approved, but proved an efficient method to supply extra ammunition in combat. After the introduction of the round magazine, it was common for troops to tape two round magazines together, a practice that became known as " Jungle style ". This led the military to introduce the "Holder, Magazine T3-A1" also called the "Jungle Clip", a metal clamp that held two magazines together without the need for tape.
The round magazines introduced for use with the selective-fire M2 carbine would not be reliably retained by the magazine catch made for the original M1 carbine which was designed to retain a round magazine, so the much heavier when loaded round magazine would not be properly seated in the M1 carbine magazine well. The loaded round magazine would typically cant impairing feed reliability or even fall out, which helps explain why the round magazines have a poor reliability record they are also more prone to damage due to their added length and weight when loaded as thin steel is used to make them.
Thus early production M1 carbines must be fitted with the type IV magazine catch used on the M2 carbine and late production M1 carbines if they are to be used with round magazines.
The type IV magazine catch will have a leg on the left side to correspond with the additional nub on the round magazines.
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Initial combat reports noted that M1 carbine's magazine release button was often mistaken for the safety button while under fire. As a result, the push-button safety was redesigned using a rotating lever. Originally the M1 carbine did not have a bayonet lug, but it was often issued with an M3 fighting knife or a bayonet converted into a fighting knife. Due to requests from the field, the carbine was modified to incorporate a bayonet lug attached to the barrel band starting in After the war, the bayonet lug was added to many M1 carbines during the arsenal refurbishing process.
By the start of the Korean Warthe bayonet lug-equipped M1 was standard issue. It is now rare to find an original M1 carbine without the bayonet lug.
The M1 carbine mounts the standard M4 bayonetwhich was based on the earlier M3 fighting knife and formed the basis for the later M5M6 and M7 bayonet -knives.
A folding-stock version of the carbine the M1A1 was also developed after a request for a compact and light infantry arm for airborne troops. The Inland Division of General Motors manufacture of them in two product runs in late Army airborne units and the U. Marine Corps. As carbines were reconditioned, parts such as the magazine catch, rear sight, barrel band without bayonet lug, and stock were upgraded with current standard-issue parts.
Dating a carbine by its serial number alone is difficult and not always accurate given the circumstances inherent with manufacturing and the logistics situation during the time the carbines were manufactured. Some people estimate a carbine's date of manufacture by adding the quantities manufactured month to month to the assigned serial number. The M1 carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber, M1) is a lightweight semi-automatic carbine that was a standard firearm for the U.S. military during World War II, the Korean War and well into the Vietnam keitaiplus.com M1 carbine was produced in several variants and was widely used by not only the U.S. military, but by paramilitary and police forces around the keitaiplus.com: M1, Semi-automatic carbine, M2/M3, Selective . Feb 16, -M1 Carbines , (Saginaw (S.G.), did not make the M2, M3, T3, or M1A1 Carbines) There is a difference between an all matching carbine and how it left the factory, a lot of M1 Carbine contractors shipped parts to other Contractors. Just because its all matching doesn't necessary mean that is how it left the factory.
Also, both during and after World War II, many semi-automatic M1 carbines were converted to select-fire M2 carbines by using the T17 and T18 conversion kits. During World War II, the T23 M3 flash hider was designed to reduce the muzzle flash from the carbine, but was not introduced into service until the advent of the M3 carbine. The M1 carbine was used with the M8 grenade launcherwhich was developed in early It was fired with the. Stress from firing rifle grenades would eventually crack the carbine's stock.
It also could not use the M8 launcher with an M7 auxiliary "booster" charge to extend its range without breaking the stock. This made it a type of emergency-issue weapon.
A total of over 6. Few contractors made all the parts for carbines bearing their names: some makers bought parts from other major contractors or sub-contracted minor parts to companies like Marlin Firearms or Auto-Ordnance.
Parts by all makers were required to be interchangeable. Often one company would get ahead or behind in production and parts would be shipped from one company to the other to help them catch up on their quota.
When receivers were shipped for this purpose the manufacturers would often mark them for both companies. Many carbines were refurbished at several arsenals after the war, with many parts interchanged from original maker carbines. True untouched war production carbines, therefore, are the most desirable for collectors. These were major factors in the United States military decision to adopt the M1 carbine, especially when considering the vast numbers of weapons and ammunition manufactured and transported by the United States during World War II.
Manufactured 1, carbine barrels; Enough for their own carbines, even more for other prime contractors and providing over , replacement barrel assemblies Received the annual Army-Navy Production Award for high achievement in the production of war material for their caliber Carbine Model M1, in , , and Overview: Model. Jul 18, How to Identify an Original M1 Carbine, Part 1, Receivers, Types, Markings, Characteristics - Duration: For Collectors Only, North Cape Publications , views. The first generation Universal M1 Carbine mainly used USGI parts, including a USGI bolt locking mechanism. One example in the sub-5xxx SN range had an IBM barrel with flaming bomb emblem. The transition in production between first generation and second generation is .
The M1 carbine with its reduced-power. However, it was markedly superior to the. As a result, the carbine was soon widely issued to infantry officers, American paratroopersnon-commissioned officersammunition bearers, forward artillery observers, and other frontline troops.
Army infantry company was issued a total of 28 M1 carbines. The M1 carbine gained generally high praise for its small size, light weight and firepower, especially by those troops who were unable to use a full-size rifle as their primary weapon. In the Asiatic-Pacific Theatersoldiers and guerrilla forces operating in heavy jungle with only occasional enemy contact praised the carbine for its small size, light weight, and firepower. Army and the U. The carbine's exclusive use of non-corrosive-primer ammunition was found to be a godsend by troops and ordnance personnel serving in the Pacific, where barrel corrosion was a significant issue with the corrosive primers used in.
Initially, the M1 carbine was intended to have a select-fire capability, but the requirement for rapid production of the new carbine resulted in the omission of this feature from the Light Rifle Program.
On 26 Octoberin response to the Germans' widespread use of automatic weapons, especially the Sturmgewehr 44 assault riflethe select-fire M2 carbine was introduced, along with a new round magazine. The M2 had a fully automatic rate-of-fire of about - rounds-per-minute. Although actual M2 production began late in the war AprilU. Ordnance issued conversion-part kits to allow field conversion of semi-auto M1 carbines to the selective-fire M2 configuration.
In the Pacific, both converted and original M2 carbines saw limited use in the last days of the fighting in the Philippines. The M3 carbine was an M2 carbine with the M2 infrared night sight or sniperscope. For the first time, U. A team of two or three soldiers was used to operate the weapon and provide support.
At that point, the operator would fire a burst of automatic fire at the greenish images of enemy soldiers.
The system was refined over time, and by the Korean War the improved M3 infrared night sight was in service. The M3 sight has a longer effective range than its predecessor, about yards meters. However, it still required the user to carry a heavy backpack-mounted battery pack to power the scope and infrared light.
They were used primarily in static defensive positions in Korea to locate troops attempting to infiltrate in darkness. M3 operators would not only use their carbines to dispatch individual targets, but also used tracer ammo to identify troop concentrations for machine gunners to decimate.
By the Korean Warthe select fire M2 carbine had largely replaced the submachine-gun in U. However, in Korea, all versions of the carbine soon acquired a widespread reputation for jamming in extreme cold weather,    this being eventually traced to weak return springs, freezing of parts due to overly viscous lubricants and inadequate cartridge recoil impulse as the result of subzero temperatures.
There were also many complaints from individual soldiers that the carbine bullet failed to stop heavily clothed     or gear-laden    North Korean and Chinese PVA troops even at close range and after multiple hits. A official U. Army evaluation reported that The record contains a few examples of carbine-aimed fire felling an enemy soldier at this distance or perhaps a little more. But they are so few in number that no general conclusion can be drawn from them.
Where carbine fire had proved killing effect, approximately 95 percent of the time the target was dropped at less than 50 yards. By experience, they would come to handle it semi-automatically, but it took prolonged battle hardening to bring about this adjustment in the human equation.
Despite its mixed reputation, the M2 carbine's firepower often made it the weapon of choice, when it came to night patrols in Korea. The M1 and M2 carbines were again issued to U. These weapons began to be replaced by the M16 inand they were generally out of service by s, although they were used in limited numbers by U.
At leastM1 and M2 carbines were given to the South Vietnamese and were widely used throughout the Vietnam War. They were used by every branch of the U. Armed Forces. The weapon was taken into use simply because a decision had been taken by Allied authorities to supply. It was handy enough to parachute with, and, in addition, could be easily stowed in an operational Jeep. Other specialist intelligence collection units, such as 30 Assault Unit sponsored by the Naval Intelligence Division of the British Admiralty, which operated across the entire Allied area of operations, also made use of this weapon.
The carbine continued to be utilized as late as the Malayan Emergencyby the Police Field Force of the Royal Malaysian Policealong with other units of the British Army, were issued the M2 carbine for both jungle patrols and outpost defense. The " a " came from the country name in German; in this case, Amerika. The carbines were stamped according to the branch they were in service with; for instance, those used by the border guard were stamped " Bundesgrenzschutz ".
Some of these weapons were modified with different sights, finishes, and sometimes new barrels. These were issued to all branches of the Japan Self-Defense Forcesand large numbers of them found their way to Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.
Howa also made replacement parts for US-made M1 carbines issued to Japanese police and military. And, because of their compact size and semi-auto capabilities, they continued to be used by Israeli Defence Forces after the creation of Israel. The Israeli police still use the M1 carbine as a standard long gun for non-combat elements and Mash'az volunteers. The U. South Korea also took an active role in the Vietnam War.
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In many provinces of the Philippines, M1 carbines are still highly valued as a light small arm. Elements of the New People's Army and Islamic Secessionist movement value the carbine as a lightweight weapon and preferred choice for mountain and ambush operations. The M1 and M2 carbines were widely used by military, police, and security forces and their opponents during the many guerrilla and civil wars throughout Latin America until the s, when they were mostly replaced by more modern designs.
A notable user was Che Guevara who used them during the Cuban Revolution and in Bolivia where he was executed by a Bolivian soldier armed with an M2 carbine. Cienfuegos' carbine is on display in the Museum of the Revolution Cuba.
The unit data provided below refers to original U.
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Ordnance contract carbines the United States provided these countries. The standard-issue versions of the carbine officially listed and supported were the M1, M1A1, M2 and M3. Carbines originally issued with the M1A1 folding stock were made by Inland, a division of General Motors and originally came with the early "L" nonadjustable sight and barrel band without bayonet lug. Inland production of M1A1 carbines was interspersed with Inland production of M1 carbines with the standard stock.
Stocks were often swapped out as carbines were refurbished at arsenals. An original Inland carbine with an original M1A1 stock is rare today. Initially, the M1 carbine was intended to have a selective-fire capability, but the decision was made to put the M1 into production without this feature.
Fully automatic capability was incorporated into the design of the M2 an improved, selective-fire version of the M1introduced in The M2 featured the late M1 improvements to the rear sight, addition of a bayonet lug, and other minor changes. Research into a conversion kit for selective fire began May ; the first kit was developed by Inland engineers, and known as the T4. Inland was awarded a contract for T4 carbines in September Although the conversion was seen as satisfactory, the heavier round magazine put greater strain on the magazine catch, necessitating the development of a sturdier catch.
The slide, sear, and stock design also had to be modified. On fully automatic fire, the T4 model could fire about rounds per minute, but generated a manageable recoil. Although some carbines were marked at the factory as M2, the only significant difference between an M1 and M2 carbine is in the fire control group.
The military issued field conversion kits T17 and T18 to convert an M1 to an M2. Legally a carbine marked M2 is always a machine gun for national firearms registry purposes. These M2 parts including the heavier M2 stock were standardized for arsenal rebuild of M1 and M1A1 carbines.
A modified round bolt replaced the original flat top bolt to save machining steps in manufacture. Many sources erroneously refer to this round bolt as an 'M2 bolt' but it was developed as a standard part for new manufacture M1 and later M2 carbines and as a replacement part, with priority given to use on M1A1 and M2 carbines.
Despite being in demand, very few M2 carbines saw use during World War II, and then mostly in the closing days against Japan. The M2 model was the most widely used Carbine variant during the Korean War.
He found that many troops complained on the lack of effective range of the gun, which allowed the enemy to get close enough to throw hand grenades.
A more detailed analysis showed however that most troops who complained actually tended to run low on ammo, because they fired their M2 on fully automatic too soon. Troops who fired their guns on semi-automatic at distance generally complained less about the M2's effectiveness.
Generally, the more seasoned troops used the latter approach. The carbine was usually given to second line troops administrative, support, etc. Marshall noted that almost all killing shots with carbines in Korea were at ranges of 50 yards or less.
It was unsurprising therefore that the M2 was a preferred weapon for night patrols. Contemporary authors have struggled to categorize the M2 carbine. On one hand, it is more powerful than a submachine gun and is considered by some to be an assault rifleeven though it fires a projectile considerably less powerful than the StG 44 's 7.
On the other hand, the M2 can also be considered a precursor of the modern personal defense weapon PDW concept, even though contemporary guns in that category, like the FN P90fire substantially different cartridges like the 5.
The M3 carbine was an M2 carbine fitted with a mount designed to accept an infrared sight for use at night. It was initially used with the M1 sniperscopeand an active infrared sight, and saw action in with the Army during the invasion of Okinawa. Before the M3 carbine and M1 sniperscope were type-classified, they were known as the T3 and T, respectively. The system continued to be developed, and by the time of the Korean Warthe M3 carbine was used with the M3 sniperscope.
The M2 sniper scope extended the effective nighttime range of the M3 carbine to yards. In the later stages of the Korean War, an improved version of the M3 carbine, with a revised mount, a forward pistol grip, and a new M3 sniperscope design was used in the latter stages of Korea and briefly in Vietnam.
The M3 sniperscope had a large active infrared spotlight mounted on top of the scope body itself, allowing use in the prone position. The 5. They did not catch on in competition against the Ruger Mini in both the police and civilian markets. The Ingram SAM rifles are occasionally found on auction sites for collectors.
Some companies used a combination of original USGI and new commercial parts, while others manufactured entire firearms from new parts, which may or may not be of the same quality as the originals. These copies were marketed to the general public and police agencies but were not made for or used by the U.
How to Identify an Original M1 Carbine, Part 1, Receivers, Types, Markings, Characteristics
Infirearms designer Melvin M. Johnson introduced a version of the M1 carbine called the "Spitfire" that fired a 5. While the concept had some military application when used for this role in the selective-fire M2 carbine, it was not pursued, and few Spitfire carbines were made. More recently, the Auto-Ordnance division of Kahr Arms began production of an M1 carbine replica in based on the typical M1 carbine as issued inwithout the later adjustable sight or barrel band with bayonet lug.
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The original Auto-Ordnance had produced various parts for IBM carbine production during World War II, but did not manufacture complete carbines until the introduction of this replica. The AOM and AOM models no longer produced featured birch stocks and handguards, Parkerized receivers, flip-style rear sights and barrel bands without bayonet lugs.
A round mag catch was utilized to allow high-capacity magazines. The M1A1 is modeled after a late production M1A1 Paratrooper model with a folding "low wood" walnut stock, Type two barrel band, and includes the same adjustable sights which were actually introduced in The company claims accuracy of 1. It is still popular with civilian shooters around the world and is prized as a historically significant collector's item.
The Carbine continues to be used in military marksmanship training and competitive target matches conducted by rifle clubs affiliated with the Civilian Marksmanship Program CMP. The M1 carbine can be used for big-game hunting, such as white-tailed deer and mule deer at close range less than yardsbut is definitely underpowered for larger North American game such as elkmooseand bear.
Some U. The M1 Carbine is also prohibited for hunting in several states such as Pennsylvania because of the semi-automatic function, and Illinois which prohibits all non-muzzleloading rifles for big game hunting.
Five-round magazines are commercially made for use in states that limit the capacity of semi-automatic hunting rifles. Some indoor pistol ranges may permit the firing of an M1 carbine, as its bullet is comparable to magnum handgun rounds, whereas an AR, AK or other high-velocity rifle might penetrate the backstop. New Jersey lists the "M1 Carbine Type" as a banned assault firearm although most examples of the M1 Carbine technically meet the restrictions on semi-automatic rifles identified by the state.
Although not banned by name, make or model, M1 Carbines may in some cases be classified as contraband assault weapon under the NY SAFE act if they feature bayonet lugs, pistol grips, folding stocks and flash suppressors. The M1 carbine was also used by various law enforcement agencies and prison guards, and was prominently carried by riot police during the civil unrest of the late s and early s; until it was replaced in those roles by more modern.
The ease of use and great adaptability of the weapon led to it being used by Malcolm X and Patty Hearst. Both were featured in famous news photographs carrying the carbine. An M1 was also the weapon used in the assassination of notorious American mobster Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel. The ammunition used by the military with the carbine include:.
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