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History of the Phoenicians

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Photos of general trias cavite city, mga espanyol sa silang, cavite. Rosales at cavite is a cover of its foundation. Arrival; sun - thu 9: showtime tnt kids, gloves and we reached aguinaldo shrine in cavite. The Phoenicians came under the control of the largest and most powerful of these successors, the Seleucids.

The Phoenician homeland was repeatedly contested by the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt during the forty year Syrian Warscoming under Ptolemaic rule in the third century BC. Under their rule, the Phoenicians were evidently allowed a considerable degree of autonomy. During the Seleucid Dynastic Wars BCthe Phoenician cities were fought over by the warring factions of the Seleucid royal family.

The Seleucid Empire, which once stretched from the Aegean Sea to Pakistan, was reduced to a rump state comprising portions of the Levant and southeast Anatolia. Little is known of life in Phoenicia during this time, but the Seleucids were severely weakened, and their realm left as a buffer between various rival states before being annexed to Rome by Pompey in 63 BC.

After centuries of decline, the last vestiges of Phoenician power in the Eastern Mediterranean were absorbed into the Roman province of Coele-Syria. While the Phoenician motherland was enduring a succession of foreign invasions, its settlement of Carthage was flourishing in northwest Africa, eventually becoming the only major continuation of Phoenician civilization and culture.

Founded in the ninth century BC as a colony of TyreCarthage became an independent city state around BC and soon rose to become a major power, exercising political hegemony over other Phoenician settlements, as well as foreign cultures, throughout the western Mediterranean. Beginning in the fifth century BC, while Phoenicia was under Babylonian rule, Carthage became the principal commercial center of the western Mediterranean and one of two hegemonic powers in the whole Mediterranean, rivaled only by Rome.

Although it developed a distinct identity and culture, sometimes described as Punic from the Latin poenus and punicusthe Carthaginians still acknowledged their Phoenician heritage and maintained many of the same societal customs and religious traditions, albeit with some localized changes; for example, their Punic language was a distinct dialect of Phoenician.

The Roman term for Phoenicians, Punic, was used to describe Carthage by the contemporary Romans and remains in use by historians. The Carthaginian economy relied not only on their traditional Phoenician mercantile pursuits but also upon the agricultural and industrial produce of its overseas colonies. The Carthaginians oversaw significant exploitation of iron, lead, silver, gold and other natural resources in their lucrative Iberian colonies, while their holdings in Sicily and Africa included some of the most agriculturally productive land in the entire Mediterranean basin.

There is evidence that the Carthaginians utilized the potter's wheel in manufacturing, and pioneered serial production techniques to produce many ships at minimal time and cost. By the third century BC, Carthage became one of the richest and most populous cities in the ancient world.

Carthage's growing wealth and power led to several confrontations with the nascent Roman Republic known as the Punic Wars. Spanning well over a century, the conflict saw some of the largest and most complex battles in antiquity. The wars would determine the fate of the Mediterranean world, and by extension human history, putting Phoenician civilization versus Greco-Roman civilization. Notwithstanding a number of decisive and stunning victories, particularly under the leadership of Hannibal Barca in the Second Punic War, Carthage gradually lost territory, power, and prestige, culminating in its complete destruction by Roman forces after the third and final Punic War in BC.

The entirety of the Carthaginian Empire was absorbed into Rome, and Carthage itself was reduced to rubble, along with any written records. Although the Romans later built a new city of Carthage in its place- which grew into one of the largest and most important cities in the Roman Empire-Phoenician civilization in the western Mediterranean was all but extinguished. With their strategically valuable buffer state absorbed into a rival power, the Romans were moved to intervene and conquer the territory in 62 BC.

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Shortly thereafter, the territory was incorporated into the Roman province of Syria. Phoenicia became a separate province in the third century AD, though by that time the Phoenicians lacked the autonomy that had been accorded by previous powers, and their culture was gradually assimilated into broader Roman society. While the annihilation of Carthage and the absorption of the Levant put an end to Phoenician civilization, vestiges of the Phoenicians still remained, particularly their language.

In the Levant, the Phoenician language persisted until roughly the ninth century. In the former Carthaginian heartland of Africa, Punic could be written until the second or third centuries albeit in Roman and Greek script and remained spoken among commoners at least until the end of the fourth century.

The Phoenicians were an offshoot of the Canaanitesa group of ancient Semitic-speaking peoples that emerged at least in the second millennium BC.

Centuries of largely peaceful relations between Phoenicians and various groups across the ancient world suggest their demographic makeup may have been cosmopolitan and variable, especially when compared to their mostly homogeneous Greek and Egyptian neighbors. A study of mitochondrial lineages in Sardinia concluded that the Phoenicians were "inclusive, multicultural and featured significant female mobility", with evidence of indigenous Sardinians integrating "peacefully and permanently" with Phoenicians settlers.

The study also found evidence suggesting that Europeans may have settled in the area of modern Lebanon. The extent to which non-Phoenicians were integrated into Carthaginian society, including through inter-marriage, is unknown. However, the Carthaginian military was known to employ a wide variety of ethnic groups, including Berbers, Celts, and indigenous Iberians.

Moreover, some onomastic evidence suggests the Carthaginians intermarried with Libyans at least by the fourth and third centuries BC. Asia portal. A study led by Pierre Zalloua claimed that six subclades of Haplogroup J-M J2 -thought to have originated between the Caucasus MountainsMesopotamia and the Levant -were of a "Phoenician signature" and present amongst the male populations of the "coastal Lebanese Phoenician Heartland" and wider Levant the "Phoenician Periphery"followed by other areas of historic Phoenician settlement, spanning Cyprus through to Morocco.

The researchers suggested that the proposed genetic signature stemmed from "a common source of related lineages rooted in Lebanon ". A follow up study by Zalloua in revealed that none of the religious communities tested in Lebanon carried significantly higher levels of the proposed "Phoenician signature" than the others. This suggested that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions and, by the time it became Phoenicia, " Lebanon already had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, and religions came as layers of paint on top.

Inthe skeleton of 2, year old Carthaginian man was excavated from a Punic tomb in Tunisia, and was found bearing the rare U5b2c1 maternal haplogroup, which appeared between 42, years ago. The lineage of this "Young Man of Byrsa" is believed to represent early gene flow from Iberia to the Maghreb[92] and is the oldest European lineage discovered in Africa.

A series of studies of different populations in the Levant have generally concluded that Levantine Semites -such as LebaneseMizrahi JewsPalestiniansand Syrians -are possibly the closest surviving relatives of ancient Phoenicians. Concentrated along a narrow strip of land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Lebanon Mountainsthe Phoenician economy relied heavily upon the sea for both nourishment and trade. Lacking the arable land for agriculture and the numbers to conquer or exact tribute from other territories, the Phoenician city states virtually always pursued mercantilism.

Pliny the Elder remarked in the first century AD that the Phoenicians "invented trade". They were indeed the greatest merchants of their time and owed much of their prosperity to commercial ties across the Mediterranean and possibly beyond. At first, they traded mainly with the nearby Greeks, particularly woo slavesglass and powdered Tyrian purplea violet-purple dye used by the Greek elite to color garments. As the Greeks began trading and colonizing across the Mediterranean-possibly with the help of Phoenician knowledge and technology -the two peoples appeared to have divided the sea among themselves: The Phoenicians settled and dominated the southern and western shores, while the Greeks were active along the northern shores.

There was rarely conflict, except mainly in the Sicilian Wars of the sixth century BC, and they otherwise maintained their respective spheres of influence. To Egypt the Phoenicians sold wine beginning in the eighth century. From Egypt, the Phoenicians bought Nubian gold.

Additionally, great cedar logs were traded with lumber-poor Egypt for significant sums. Sometime between and BC an Egyptian envoy by the name of Wen-Amon visited Phoenicia and secured seven great cedar logs in exchange for a mixed cargo including "4 crocks and 1 kak-men of gold; 5 silver jugs; 10 garments of royal linen; 10 kherd of good linen from Upper Egypt; rolls of finished papyrus; cows' hides; ropes; 20 bags of lentils and 30 baskets of fish.

From elsewhere, they obtained other materials, perhaps the most important being silvermostly from Sardinia and the Iberian Peninsula.

Tin was required which, when smelted with copper from Cyprus, created the durable metal alloy bronze. The archaeologist Glenn Markoe suggests that tin "may have been acquired from Galicia by way of the Atlantic coast or southern Spain; alternatively, it may have come from northern Europe Cornwall or Brittany via the Rhone valley and coastal Massalia ".

In fact, he says quite the opposite: the production of Cornish tin was in the hands of the natives of Cornwall, and its transport to the Mediterranean was organised by local merchants, by sea and then over land through France, well outside Phoenician control. Colonization eventually passed the difficult Strait of Gibraltar, particularly the Atlantic coast of Iberia, and the Phoenicians may have explored the Canary Islands and the British Isles. Phoenicia lacked natural resources of appreciable quantity or value, with the exception of its prized cedar wood.

Timber was probably the earliest and most lucrative source of wealth, since it was vital for making ships and constructing larger houses and temples. Neither Egypt nor Mesopotamia had adequate sources of wood, and the earliest accounts from both civilizations concern obtaining Phoenician timber. In exchange, the city received papyrus, a highly prized writing material invented by the Egyptians, which was then exported to the rest of the Mediterranean, including to the Greeks; the city's Greek name Byblos which came from the native Phoenician Gubal consequently came to mean "papyrus" in Greek.

Unable to rely solely on this relatively finite resource, which was difficult to obtain from the mountainous hinterlands, the Phoenicians developed a sophisticated industrial base that manufactured a variety of goods for both common and luxury use.

Considered early pioneers in mass production, the Phoenicians were able to produce and sell a variety of items in bulk, from pendants to ceramics.

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Phoenicians became the leading source of glassware in antiquity, shipping thousands of flasks, beads, and other glass objects across the Mediterranean. The Phoenician's exposure to a wide variety of cultures allowed them to manufacture goods for specific markets. Homer's Iliad suggests Phoenician clothing and metal goods being were highly prized by the Greeks. As needed, the Phoenicians could substitute expensive materials with cheaper and more accessible kinds, such as carved bone instead of ivory or colored glass instead of precious stones.

The Book of Ezekielwritten in the late sixth century BC, details how Phoenician wares were exchanged for a variety of goods, including "wheat, oil, and livestock and precious commodities, such as silver, iron, tin, lead, ivory, and ebony The most famed and coveted of Phoenician goods were fabrics and textiles dyed with Tyrian purple named after the major Phoenician city state of Tyrewhich formed a major part of Phoenician wealth.

The name Phoenicia may have derived from the Greek root word for "purple," indicating the extent to which it was the Phoenician's most sought-after trading good.

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The violet-purple dye derived from the hypobranchial gland of the Murex sea-snail, once profusely available in coastal waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea but exploited to local extinction. Phoenicians may have discovered the dye as early as BC. Pritchard 's excavations at Sarepta in present-day Lebanon revealed crushed Murex shells and pottery containers stained with the dye that was being produced at the site.

The Phoenicians established a second production center for the dye in Mogadorin present-day Morocco. According to contemporaneous accounts by neighboring civilizations, Tyrian purple was highly prized because of its resistance to weathering and sunlight, which only made it brighter. The Phoenician's exclusive command over the production and trade of the dye, combined with the labor-intensive extraction process, made it very expensive.

Tyrian purple subsequently became associated with the upper classes and soon became a status symbol in several civilizations, most notably among the Romans. Assyrian records of tribute from the Phoenicians include "garments of brightly colored stuff" that most likely included Tyrian purple. While the designs, ornamentation, and embroidery used in Phoenician textiles were apparently well-regarded, the techniques and specific descriptions are unknown.

The Phoenicians most likely learned mining techniques from the Egyptians. Mining operations in the Phoenician homeland were limited, since iron was the only metal of any worth. Rawlinson believed that a major motivation for their initial expeditions was to find sources of mineral wealth.

The first large scale mining operations probably occurred in Cyprus, which was the Phoenician's earliest and closest overseas territory to have mineral wealth, principally copper. Egyptian suzerainty over Phoenicia was motivated partly to access to copper. Sardinia may have been colonized almost exclusively for its mineral resources; Phoenician settlements were concentrated in the southern and southwestern parts of the island, which were rich in copper and lead, and their cities were positioned relatively close to these sources.

Piles of scorae and copper ingots, which appear to predate the subsequent Roman occupation, suggest the Phoenicians both mined and processed metals on the island.

The Iberian Peninsula, which saw significant Phoenician settlement, was known for being the richest source of numerous metals in antiquity, including gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, and lead. Although the Phoenician homeland lacked sufficient arable land to support large scale agriculture. The most notable agricultural product was wine known as cheremwhich the Phoenicians helped propagate across the Mediterranean.

The common grape vine may have been domesticated by the Phoenicians or Canaanites, although it most likely arrived from Transcaucasia modern Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan via Mesopotamia or Black Sea trade routes. Vines grew readily in the coastal Levant, and the wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt as early as the Old Kingdom period - BC.

The wines of Tyre and Sidon were popular in the ancient Mediterranean, as evidenced by the discovery of shipwrecks still full of wine. Wine played an important part in Phoenician religionand the Greek god Dionysus and by extension the Roman god Bacchus may have originated in the wine rituals of Canaan.

The great temple at Baalbek has many depictions of vines and wine drinking, which could have influenced Jewish Passover Seder and the Christian Eucharist. Wine also featured heavily in Ugaritic poetrysuch as the Rapiuma :. Day long they pour the wine, Wine, sweet and abundant, Select wine The choice wine of Lebanon, Most nurtured by El The Phoenicians may also have taught winemaking to some of their trading partners.

The ancient Iberians began producing wine from local grape varieties following their encounter with the Phoenicians. Iberian cultivars subsequently formed the basis of most western European wine.

Carthage, which had more abundant and fertile land than other Phoenician settlements, practiced highly advanced and productive agriculture. The Carthaginians appeared to have made good use of their land, inventing hand-driven rotary mills in the sixth century BC and horse mills in the fourth century BC, while also adopting or improving upon iron ploughsirrigationcrop rotationand threshing machines. Carthage was subsequently an agricultural powerhouse of the Mediterranean, exporting olives, nuts, honey, wheat, and various fruits and vegetables, especially figs, pears, pomegranates, grates, and dates.

Livestock were also raised, particularly mules, oxen, goats, and horses. Circumstantial evidence suggests Carthage also developed viticulture and wine production before the fourth century BC, with raisin wine passum being especially popular, even among the otherwise hostile Romans. Carthage produced one of history's earliest agronmistsknown only as Mago.

Considered the "Father of Farming" by the Greeks and Romans, he produced a book treatise on a wide variety of agricultural topics, ranging from beekeeping to land management. His work was so well regarded that when Rome conquered and destroyed Carthage in BC, the Roman Senate decreed that his famous treatise on agriculture be translated into Latin. Unfortunately, Mago's original writings are lost, and only fragments remain of its translations.

The Phoenicians were among the earliest and most influential shipbuilders and mariners. Naval historian Richard Woodman described them as "the first true seafarers, founding the art of pilotage, cabotage, and navigation" and the inventors of "the first true ship, built of planks, capable of carrying a deadweight cargo and being sailed and steered.

As early as BC, the Phoenicians built large merchant ships. During the Bronze Age, they developed the keelthe bottom-most longitudinal structural element on a ship, which was a significant advancement over the more common dugout vessels, which were limited in size, durability, maneuverability.

Pegged mortise-and-tenon joints were developed to make Phoenician ships sturdier, and proved effective enough to serve as a standard template across the Mediterranean until late into the Roman Empire. Other key ship components, such as the brailed rig sailwhich allowed for greater maneuverability, and the crow's nestwhich provided a vital lookout point, most likely originated in the Levant. The Phoenicians were possibly the first to introduce the biremearound BC, which was a large galley with two tiers of oars staggered on either side allowing for significantly greater propulsion.

The Phoenicians developed several other maritime inventions. The amphoraa type of container used for both dry and liquid goods, was an ancient Phoenician invention that became a standardized measurement of volume for close to two thousand years.

The remnants of self-cleaning artificial harbors have been discovered in Sidon, Tyre, Atlit, and Acre. The wind rose, a precursor to the compass rose, was apparently of Phoenician or Levantine origin. The first example of admiralty law also appears in the Levant.

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The Greeks had two names for Phoenician ships: Galloi tubs and hippoi horses. The names are readily explained by depictions of Phoenician ships in the palaces of Assyrian kings from the seventh and eighth centuries BC, which were tub shaped galloi and had horse heads on both ends.

It is possible that the hippoi come from Phoenician connections with the Greek god Poseidonequated with the Semitic-Levantine god Yam. In OeconomicusGreek historian and philosopher Xenophonthrough the Greek character Ischomachus, speaks admirably of Phoenician ships: "I think that the best and most perfect arrangement of things that I ever saw was when I went to look at the great Phoenician sailing-vessel; for I saw the largest amount of naval tackling separately disposed in the smallest stowage possible.

Ina roughly foot Phoenician trading ship was found near Gozo island in Malta. Dated BC, it is one of the oldest wrecks found in the Mediterranean and the oldest in the central Mediterranean.

The Phoenicians were not a nation in the political sense, but were organized into independent city states that shared a common language and culture. The leading city states were Sur TyreSydon Sidonand Byblos one of the oldest sites of civilization.

Throughout Phoenician history, at least one of these cities was politically and economically dominant for time. Rivalries were common, but open warfare less so.

Although they never appeared to have joined in a formal confederation, as seen among the Greek city states, informal cooperation seemed common. From the late tenth century BC, the Phoenician's drive to explore and discover new markets led them to establish cities and colonies beyond Lebanon and throughout the Mediterranean.

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Additionally, the semi-mythical region of Tartessossaid to have spanned the whole southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, may have been a Phoenician colony. To facilitate their commercial ventures, the Phoenicians established numerous colonies and trading posts along the coasts of the Mediterranean. Phoenician city states generally lacked the numbers or even the desire to expand their territory overseas.

In contrast to their Greek counterpartsfew colonies had more than 1, inhabitants; only Carthage and some nearby settlements in the western Mediterranean would grow larger.

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Another motivating factor was competition with the Greeks, who began expanding across the Mediterranean during the same period. The earliest Phoenician settlements outside the Levant were on Cyprus and Cretegradually moving westward towards Corsicathe Balearic IslandsSardiniaand Sicilyas well as on the European mainland in Genoa and Marseilles.

Notwithstanding Strabo 's exaggerated claims the Tyre founded colonies in north Africa, many colonies did arise in Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Iberiaand, to a much lesser extent, on the arid coast of Libya. Until the rise of Carthage in the mid-seventh century BC, Phoenician colonies were fairly autonomous. At most, they were expected to send annual tribute to their mother city, usually in the context of a religious offering. The Carthaginians broke with this policy by appointing magistrates in their colonies, through whom they exercised direct control.

The affinity was apparently mutual, as Tyre reportedly refused to sail against its former colony as ordered by the Persian King Cambyses II. Since very little of the Phoenicians' own writings have survived, much of what is known about their culture and society comes from accounts by contemporary civilizations or inferences from archaeological discoveries.

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Pomponius Melawriting in the first century AD, once described the Phoenicians as "a clever race, who prospered in war and peace" and "excelled in writing and literature, and in other arts, in seamanship, and in ruling an empire. The Phoenicians had much in common with other Canaanites, including language, religion, social customs, and a monarchical political system centered around city-states. However, by the early Iron Age roughly BC the Phoenicians had emerged as a distinct people, with their culture, economy, and daily life being heavily centered on commerce and maritime trade.

Their propensity for seafaring brought them into contact with numerous civilizations, possibly more than any of their contemporaries, leading to a uniquely cosmopolitan society that incorporated foreign customs, artistic styles, and faith traditions. Despite a shared language, culture, and religion, the Phoenicians never constituted a single, cohesive political unit, nor did they appear to view themselves as a nation in the modern sense.

The Phoenicians organized into city states that were fiercely independent in both domestic and foreign affairs. Formal alliances between city states were rare, and cooperation was generally informal, loosely aligned, and ad hoc. Unlike their Greek counterparts, warfare between Phoenician city states was rarer still, although rivalries did exist and coercion was sometimes employed. The relative power and influence of city states varied over time.

Sidon was dominant between the 12th and 11th centuries BC, and exercised some influence over its neighbors, but by the tenth century BC, Tyre rose to become the most powerful city. Phoenician society was highly stratified and predominantly monarchicalat least in its earlier stages.

Hereditary kings usually governed with absolute power and had responsibilities over civic, commercial, and religious affairs. They often relied upon senior officials from the noble and merchant classes, who typically served in an adirim, a council of "great men". The priesthood was a distinct class, usually of royal lineage or from leading merchant families. The king was considered a representative of the gods and carried many obligations and duties with respect to religious processions and rituals.

Priests were thus highly influential and often became intertwined with the royal family. Unlike their Greek and Egyptian counterparts, Phoenician kings did not commemorate their reign through sculptures or monuments. Their wealth, power, and accomplishments were usually conveyed through ornate sarcophagi, like that of Ahiram of Byblos. The Phoenicians kept fairly meticulous records of their rulers in the form of tomb inscriptions, which are among the few primary sources still available.

Historians have been able to determine a clear line of succession over centuries for some city-states, notably Byblos and Tyre. Not all Phoenician city states were absolute monarchies; their political systems appeared to have changed gradually over time or depending on the circumstances.

British classicist Simon Hornblower notes that the Phoenicians "had something comparable to the self-regulating city-state or polis " of the Greeks. In the sixth century BC, during the period of Babylonian rule, Tyre briefly adopted a system of government consisting of a pair of judges, known as sufeteswho were chosen from the most powerful noble families and served short terms.

In the fourth century BC, when the armies of Alexander the Great approached Tyre, they were met not by its king but by "representatives" of the "commonwealth" or the "community" of the city. In a diplomatic exchange, it was "the people" of Tyre who passed a decree in response. Similarly, historians at the time describe the "inhabitants" or "the people" of Sidon making peace with Alexander, with the king surrendering after being "prompted by his citizens' wishes rather than his own. According to Stephen Stockwellwhile the Phoenicians initially had strong monarchies, starting as early as 15th century BC through to the fourth century BC, their "leaders were advised by councils or assemblies which gradually took greater power", leading to weaker kings being the norm.

Stockwell concludes that "the active role that the assembly took on the few occasions we see it in operation suggests that the Phoenicians had something more than an autocracy or even oligarchy and that it earns categorization as a proto-democracy, at least, if not full recognition as a democracy. Far more is known about the government of Carthage than of any other Phoenician city state, perhaps owing to its proximity to Rome and its prominence as an empire since most information comes from Greco-Roman accounts.

Like its mother city of Tyre, it appeared to have been ruled by two sufetes. A supreme council of aristocratic families, akin to the Roman Senate or Spartan Gerousia council of eldershad a wide range of powers, including over the treasury and foreign affairs.

They exercised judicial and executive authority, but unlike political leaders in other ancient societies, they had no direct control over the armed forces; they instead appointed generals to handle all military affairs.

A number of junior officials and special commissioners oversaw various cts of governance, such as public works, tax collection, and the administration of the state treasury. A council known as the Hundred and Fourwhich Aristotle compared to the ephors of Sparta, had a quasi-judicial function, acting as a kind of higher constitutional court that oversaw the actions of generals and other officials.

Panels of special commissioners, called pentarchieswere appointed from among the Hundred and Four to handle various state affairs.

After the king and council, the two most important political positions in virtually every Phoenician city state were that of governor and commander of the army.

Details regarding the duties of these offices are sparse, but it is known that the governor was responsible for collecting taxes, implementing decrees, supervising judges, and ensuring the administration of law and justice. The Phoenicians had a system of courts and judges that resolved disputes and punished crimes based on a semi-codified body of law and traditional.

Laws were implemented by the state and were the responsibility of the ruler and certain designated officials. Like other Levantine societies, laws were harsh and biased, reflecting the social stratification of society. The murder of a commoner was treated as less serious than of a nobleman, and the upper classes had the most rights; the wealthy often escaped punishment by paying a fine.

Free men of any class could represent themselves in court and had more rights than women and children, while slaves had no rights at all. Men could often deflect punishment to their wives, children, or slaves, even having them serve his sentence in his place. Lawyers eventually emerged as a profession for those who could not plead their own case.

As in neighboring societies at the time, penalties for crimes were often severe, usually reflecting the principle of reciprocity; for example, the killing of a slave would be punished by having the offender's slave killed. Imprisonment was rare, with fines, exile, punishment, and execution were main remedies.

As with most cts of Phoenician civilization, there are few records of their military or approach to warfare. Compared to most of their neighbors, the Phoenicians generally had little interest in conquest and were a relatively peaceful people. They also lacked the territory and agricultural base to support a population large enough for anything other than city defense; each city had an army commander in charge of a defensive garrison, but the specifics of the role, or of city defense, are unknown.

More is known about the military of Carthagethough it is uncertain whether the Carthaginian military was reflective of general Phoenician practice or unique to Carthage's sprawling, multi-ethnic empire. Like other Phoenicians, the Carthaginians were largely a maritime and trading power, and did not maintain a large, permanent, standing army.

Polybius wrote that they were naturally "superior at sea both in efficiency and equipment, because seamanship has long been their national craft" and they were "more exercised in maritime affairs than any other people" By contrast, he claims the Carthaginian infantry was "neglected" and its cavalry given "slight attention". At its peak, Carthage's navy comprised to warships.

In the First Punic War, the Romans, who previously lacked experience in naval warfare, prevailed partly by reverse-engineering captured Carthaginian ships. In the Third Punic War, Polybius describes a tactical innovation of the Carthaginians, who now faced a larger Roman force: They augmented their few triremes with small vessels that carried hooks to attack the oars and fire to attack the hulls.

This allowed them to resist far longer despite being outnumbered. As far as land warfare, Livy claims that Carthage had at least 40, professional soldiers prior to the Third Punic War.

Otherwise, it relied heavily on a multinational force of foreign mercenaries and subjects, including ethnic Libyans and Numidians from its surrounding territory, and CeltsBalearicsIberians from its overseas territories.

Phoenicia (/ f ? ? n ? ? ? /; from Ancient Greek: ???????, Phoinike) was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, specifically modern Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of Lebanon and included some coastal areas of Syria and northern Israel, reaching as far north as Arwad and as far south Capital: Byblos (- BC), Tyre (- BC). Ang Phoenicia (Kastila: Fenicia) ay isang kabihasnan sa hilagang bahagi ng Kanaan, ang banal na lupain para sa mga Kristiyano at mga Hudyo. Umiral ang Penisya magmula BK magpahanggang BK. Mayroon sariling wika ang mga Penisyo o Penisyano (mga taga-Penisya, Penisyana kung babae), tinatawag na wikang Penisyo, na mahalaga sa napakaraming makabagong mga wika. Choose the indian hindi romantic comedy film starring akshay kumar, dating tawag sa phoenician Hey with the global community for designers and google play for quality asian dating site - sunday. Like to visit the dating site planet romeo makes it clear that came along with elder men asian singles.

Its cavalry force was formidable, composed of light Numidian cavalry and mounted North African elephants. Slingersarmed with straps of cloth to toss small stones at high speeds, were also fielded. Unlike its army, the Carthaginian navy was drawn mostly from Phoenician citizenry. Perhaps reflecting historic Phoenician affinity for the sea, the navy was considered a stable and prestigious profession that offered financial security.

This helped to contribute to the city's political stability, as poor and unemployed citizens could find an outlet for upward mobility. The reputation and quality of the Carthaginian navy, conceded even by their Roman rivals, implies that their sailors were well trained even during peacetime.

The Phoenician language is classified in the Canaanite subgroup of Northwest Semitic. Its later descendant in northwest Africa is termed Punicwhich evolved in Phoenician colonies around the western Mediterranean, beginning in the ninth century BC. Punic Phoenician was still spoken in the fifth century AD; St. Augustinewho grew up in Northwest Africawas familiar with the language.

The Phoenician alphabet was one of the first consonantal alphabets with a strict and consistent form. It is assumed that it adopted its simplified linear characters from an as-yet unattested early pictorial Semitic alphabet developed some centuries earlier in the southern Levant. The oldest known representation of the Phoenician alphabet is inscribed on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram of Byblos, dating to the 11th century BC at the latest.

Phoenician inscriptions are found in Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Cyprus and other locations, as late as the early centuries of the Christian era.

The Phoenicians are credited with spreading the Phoenician alphabet throughout the Mediterranean world.

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The Greeks adopted the majority of these letters but changed some of them to vowels that were significant in their language, giving rise to the first true alphabet. The Romans would in turn adopt the Greek alphabet as the basis for the Latin script.

Phoenician art was largely centered on ornamental objects, particularly jewelry, pottery, glassware, and reliefs. Phoenician art generally lacked unique characteristics that might distinguish it from its contemporaries; it was highly influenced by the many cultures the Phoenicians traded and interacted with, primarily EgyptGreece and Assyria. These influences were sometimes reflected in specific categories of art; Greek inspiration was particularly pronounced in pottery, while Egyptian styles were most reflected in ivory work.

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The Sphinx of Egypt became Asiaticand its new form was transplanted to Nineveh on the one side and to Greece on the other. The rosettes and other patterns of the Babylonian cylinders were introduced into the handiwork of Phoenicia, and so passed on to the West, while the hero of the ancient Chaldean epic became first the Tyrian Melkarthand then the Herakles of Hellas. Over time, Egyptian artistic influence became especially prominent, often reflecting the evolving political and economic relations between the two civilization.

Phoenician art also differed from its contemporaries in its continuance of Bronze Age conventions well into the Iron Age, such as terracotta masks. The Phoenician artistic tradition appears to have been indelibly tied to its people's commercial interests. There are Greek accounts describing the arrival of Phoenician traders bearing "trinkets and baubles. In fact, much of what is known about Phoenician art is based from excavations outside of Phoenicia proper.

Oinochoe; - BC; terracotta; height: Earring from a pair, each with four relief faces; late 4th-3rd century BC; gold; overall: 3. As was common in antiquity, Phoenician women had few rights and were considered the property of their fathers or husbands.

Nonetheless, compared to their counterparts in most of the Mediterranean and western Asia, they appeared to have enjoyed some freedoms.

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Ceremonies to Baalthe god of fertility, included drunken revelry and promiscuity, which is typically taboo in more gender stratified societies. Women could engage in trade and other business activities, often working as laborers, construction workers, farmers, weavers, and even miners. However, they could never be in a formal position of authority over men. As in most civilizations at the time, the woman's primary role was to raise children and manage the household.

Although they rarely had political power, women took part in community affairs and had some voice in the popular assembles that began to emerge in some city states. In Virgil 's epic poem the Aenei Dido is described as having been the co-ruler of Tyre, using cleverness to escape the tyranny of her brother Pygmalion and to secure an ideal site for Carthage.

The religious practices and beliefs of Phoenicia were cognate generally to their neighbours in Canaanwhich in turn shared characteristics common throughout the ancient Semitic world. Phoenician society was devoted to the state Canaanite religion. Notwithstanding these and other important differences, cultural religious similarities between the ancient Hebrews and the Phoenicians persisted.

Canaanite religious mythology does not appear as elaborate compared with the literature of their Semitic cousins in Mesopotamia. The Semitic pantheon was well-populated; which god became primary evidently depended on the exigencies of a particular city-state or tribal locale. The prominent deity Eshmun of Sidon was a healing god, seemingly cognate with deities such as Adonis possibly a local variant of the same and Attis.

Associated with the fertility and harvest myth widespread in the region, in this regard Eshmun was linked with Astarte; other like pairings included Ishtar and Tammuz in Babylon, and Isis and Osiris in Egypt.

Various marzeh societies developed into elite fraternitiesbecoming very influential in the commercial trade and governance of Tyre. As now understood, each marzeh originated in the congeniality inspired and then nurtured by a series of ritual meals, shared together as trusted "kin", all held in honor of the deified ancestors. Religion in Carthage was based on inherited Phoenician ways of devotion.

In fact, until its fall, embassies from Carthage would regularly make the journey to Tyre to worship Melqartbringing material offerings. Over time the original Phoenician exemplar developed distinctly, becoming the Punic religion at Carthage. For protection they carried amulets of various origins and had them buried with them when they died. In Carthage, as in Tyrereligion was integral to the city's life.

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A committee of ten elders selected by the civil authorities regulated worship and built the temples with public funds. Some priesthoods were hereditary to certain families.

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Punic inscriptions list a hierarchy of cohen priest and rab cohenim lord priests. Each temple was under the supervision of its chief priest or priestess. To enter the Temple of Eshmun one had to abstain from sexual intercourse for three days, and from eating beans and pork. The city's legendary founderElissa or Didowas the widow of Acharbas the high priest of Tyre in service to its principal deity Melqart.

With her Dido brought not only ritual implements for the worship of Astarte, but also her priests and sacred prostitutes taken from Cyprus.

Melqart became supplanted at the Punic city-state by the emergent god Baal Hammonwhich perhaps means "lord of the altars of incense" thought to be an epithet to cloak the god's real name. This may be supported by incense burners and braziers found depicting the god. Amanus, an ancient name for the Nur Mountain range. Both also had the ram as a symbol. The Egyptian Ammon was known to have spread by trade routes to Libyans in the vicinity of modern Tunisia, well before arrival of the Phoenicians.

Yet Baal Hammon's derivation from Ammon is no longer considered the most likely, as Baal Hammon has since been traced to Syrio-Phoenician origins, confirmed by recent finds at Tyre.

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Prayers of individual Carthaginians were often addressed to Baal Hammon. Offerings to Hammon also evidently included child sacrifice. During the fifth and fourth centuries, the goddess Tanit became queen goddess, supreme over the city-state of Carthage, thus outshining the former chief god and her associate, Baal-Hammon.

Another view, supported by recent finds, holds that Tanit originated in Phoenicia, being closely linked there to the goddess Astarte. Each was a sea goddess. Yet Tanit was clearly distinguished from Astarte. Astarte's heavenly emblem was the planet Venus, Tanit's the crescent moon.

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