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Paleontology is the study of prehistoric life, primarily conducted through the analysis of fossils. By studying the preserved remains of creatures and plants that lived millions of years ago, scientists can glean valuable information about the origin and evolution of life on this planet. The most basic information a fossil can provide is about what animals and plants looked like. While a complete fossil is best for understanding body structure, even a partial fossil can provide valuable information. The condition of a fossil can indicate what type of environment existed at the time. Well-preserved and complete fossils might indicate a bog, whose soft organic matter helped prevent the fossil from deteriorating.

The Wheeler Formation has been previously dated to approximately million year old, so we know the trilobite is also about million years old. Scientists can use certain types of fossils referred to as index fossils to assist in relative dating via correlation. Index fossils are fossils that are known to only occur within a very specific age range.

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Typically commonly occurring fossils that had a widespread geographic distribution such as brachiopods, trilobites, and ammonites work best as index fossils.

If the fossil you are trying to date occurs alongside one of these index fossils, then the fossil you are dating must fall into the age range of the index fossil. Sometimes multiple index fossils can be used. In a hypothetical example, a rock formation contains fossils of a type of brachiopod known to occur between and million years.

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The same rock formation also contains a type of trilobite that was known to live to million years ago. Since the rock formation contains both types of fossils the ago of the rock formation must be in the overlapping date range of to million years.

The most basic information a fossil can provide is about what animals and plants looked like. While a complete fossil is best for understanding body structure, even a partial fossil can provide valuable information. This information can be verified by carbon dating, which can pinpoint a fossil's age. Geology. Finding similar fossils in. Fossil organisms may provide information about the climate and environment of the site where they were deposited and preserved (e.g., certain species of coral require warm, shallow water, or certain forms of deciduous angiosperms can only grow in colder climatic conditions). dating. In relative dating, scientists can observe how deep a fossil is buried, and what it is buried keitaiplus.com can help in making a rough estimate of the fossil's age. Scientists have long known that generally, the deeper a fossil is buried, the older the fossil keitaiplus.com, they can order the age of fossils based on what depth they are buried in relation to other fossils.

Studying the layers of rock or strata can also be useful. Layers of rock are deposited sequentially. If a layer of rock containing the fossil is higher up in the sequence that another layer, you know that layer must be younger in age.

This can often be complicated by the fact that geological forces can cause faulting and tilting of rocks.

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Absolute Dating Absolute dating is used to determine a precise age of a rock or fossil through radiometric dating methods. This uses radioactive minerals that occur in rocks and fossils almost like a geological clock. So, often layers of volcanic rocks above and below the layers containing fossils can be dated to provide a date range for the fossil containing rocks.

The atoms in some chemical elements have different forms, called isotopes.

Atoms of the same element but with different number of neutrons are called isotopes of that element. Each isotope is identified by its atomic masswhich is the number of protons plus neutrons.

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For example, the element carbon has six protons, but can have six, seven, or eight neutrons. Thus, carbon has three isotopes: carbon 12 12 Ccarbon 13 13 Cand carbon 14 14 C Figure 5a. C 12 and C 13 are stable. The atomic nucleus in C 14 is unstable making the isotope radioactive. Because it is unstable, occasionally C 14 undergoes radioactive decay to become stable nitrogen N The amount of time it takes for half of the parent isotopes to decay into daughter isotopes is known as the half-life of the radioactive isotope.

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Most isotopes found on Earth are generally stable and do not change. However some isotopes, like 14 C, have an unstable nucleus and are radioactive. This means that occasionally the unstable isotope will change its number of protons, neutrons, or both. This change is called radioactive decay. For example, unstable 14 C transforms to stable nitrogen 14 N. The atomic nucleus that decays is called the parent isotope. The product of the decay is called the daughter isotope.

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In the example, 14 C is the parent and 14 N is the daughter. Some minerals in rocks and organic matter e. The abundances of parent and daughter isotopes in a sample can be measured and used to determine their age.

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This method is known as radiometric dating. Some commonly used dating methods are summarized in Table 1. The rate of decay for many radioactive isotopes has been measured and does not change over time.

Thus, each radioactive isotope has been decaying at the same rate since it was formed, ticking along regularly like a clock. For example, when potassium is incorporated into a mineral that forms when lava cools, there is no argon from previous decay argon, a gas, escapes into the atmosphere while the lava is still molten.

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When that mineral forms and the rock cools enough that argon can no longer escape, the "radiometric clock" starts. Over time, the radioactive isotope of potassium decays slowly into stable argon, which accumulates in the mineral.

The amount of time that it takes for half of the parent isotope to decay into daughter isotopes is called the half-life of an isotope Figure 5b. When the quantities of the parent and daughter isotopes are equal, one half-life has occurred. If the half life of an isotope is known, the abundance of the parent and daughter isotopes can be measured and the amount of time that has elapsed since the "radiometric clock" started can be calculated.

For example, if the measured abundance of 14 C and 14 N in a bone are equal, one half-life has passed and the bone is 5, years old an amount equal to the half-life of 14 C.

If there is three times less 14 C than 14 N in the bone, two half lives have passed and the sample is 11, years old. However, if the bone is 70, years or older the amount of 14 C left in the bone will be too small to measure accurately. Thus, radiocarbon dating is only useful for measuring things that were formed in the relatively recent geologic past. Luckily, there are methods, such as the commonly used potassium-argon K-Ar metho that allows dating of materials that are beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating Table 1.

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Comparison of commonly used dating methods. Radiation, which is a byproduct of radioactive decay, causes electrons to dislodge from their normal position in atoms and become trapped in imperfections in the crystal structure of the material.

Dating methods like thermoluminescenceoptical stimulating luminescence and electron spin resonancemeasure the accumulation of electrons in these imperfections, or "traps," in the crystal structure of the material. If the amount of radiation to which an object is exposed remains constant, the amount of electrons trapped in the imperfections in the crystal structure of the material will be proportional to the age of the material. These methods are applicable to materials that are up to aboutyears old.

However, once rocks or fossils become much older than that, all of the "traps" in the crystal structures become full and no more electrons can accumulate, even if they are dislodged. The Earth is like a gigantic magnet. It has a magnetic north and south pole and its magnetic field is everywhere Figure 6a. Just as the magnetic needle in a compass will point toward magnetic north, small magnetic minerals that occur naturally in rocks point toward magnetic north, approximately parallel to the Earth's magnetic field.

Because of this, magnetic minerals in rocks are excellent recorders of the orientation, or polarityof the Earth's magnetic field.

Relative Dating The majority of the time fossils are dated using relative dating techniques. Using relative dating the fossil is compared to something for which an age is already known. For example if you have a fossil trilobite and it was found in the Wheeler Formation. The Wheeler Formation has been previously dated to approximately Unlike relative dating methods, absolute dating methods provide chronological estimates of the age of certain geological materials associated with fossils, and even direct age measurements of the. Fossil dating provide - Register and search over 40 million singles: voice recordings. How to get a good woman. It is not easy for women to find a good man, and to be honest it is not easy for a man to find a good woman. Men looking for a woman - Women looking for a woman.

Small magnetic grains in rocks will orient themselves to be parallel to the direction of the magnetic field pointing towards the north pole. Black bands indicate times of normal polarity and white bands indicate times of reversed polarity. Through geologic time, the polarity of the Earth's magnetic field has switched, causing reversals in polarity. The Earth's magnetic field is generated by electrical currents that are produced by convection in the Earth's core.

During magnetic reversals, there are probably changes in convection in the Earth's core leading to changes in the magnetic field. The Earth's magnetic field has reversed many times during its history.

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When the magnetic north pole is close to the geographic north pole as it is todayit is called normal polarity. Reversed polarity is when the magnetic "north" is near the geographic south pole.

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Using radiometric dates and measurements of the ancient magnetic polarity in volcanic and sedimentary rocks termed paleomagnetismgeologists have been able to determine precisely when magnetic reversals occurred in the past. Combined observations of this type have led to the development of the geomagnetic polarity time scale GPTS Figure 6b.

The GPTS is divided into periods of normal polarity and reversed polarity. Geologists can measure the paleomagnetism of rocks at a site to reveal its record of ancient magnetic reversals. Every reversal looks the same in the rock record, so other lines of evidence are needed to correlate the site to the GPTS.

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Information such as index fossils or radiometric dates can be used to correlate a particular paleomagnetic reversal to a known reversal in the GPTS.

Once one reversal has been related to the GPTS, the numerical age of the entire sequence can be determined. Using a variety of methods, geologists are able to determine the age of geological materials to answer the question: "how old is this fossil? These methods use the principles of stratigraphy to place events recorded in rocks from oldest to youngest.

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Absolute dating methods determine how much time has passed since rocks formed by measuring the radioactive decay of isotopes or the effects of radiation on the crystal structure of minerals. Paleomagnetism measures the ancient orientation of the Earth's magnetic field to help determine the age of rocks. Deino, A. Evolutionary Anthropology 6 : Anaerobic conditions at the bottom of the seas or other bodies of water are especially favourable for preserving fine details, since no bottom faunas, except for anaerobic bacteria, are present to destroy the remains.

In general, for an organism to be preserved two conditions must be met: rapid burial to retard decomposition and to prevent the ravaging of scavengers; and possession of hard parts capable of being fossilized. In some places, such as the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona, one can observe a great thickness of nearly horizontal strata representing the deposition of sediment on the seafloor over many hundreds of millions of years.

It is often apparent that each layer in such a sequence contains fossils that are distinct from those of the layers that are above and below it.

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In such sequences of layers in different geographic locations, the same, or similar, fossil floras or faunas occur in the identical order. By comparing overlapping sequences, it is possible to build up a continuous record of faunas and floras that have progressively more in common with present-day life forms as the top of the sequence is approached. The study of the fossil record has provided important information for at least four different purposes.

The progressive changes observed within an animal group are used to describe the evolution of that group. Fossils also provide the geologist a quick and easy way of assigning a relative age to the strata in which they occur. The precision with which this may be done in any particular case depends on the nature and abundance of the fauna: some fossil groups were deposited during much longer time intervals than others.

Fossils used to identify geologic relationships are known as index fossils. Fossil organisms may provide information about the climate and environment of the site where they were deposited and preserved e. Fossils are useful in the exploration for minerals and mineral fuels. For example, they serve to indicate the stratigraphic position of coal seams.

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In recent years, geologists have been able to study the subsurface stratigraphy of oil and natural gas deposits by analyzing microfossils obtained from core samples of deep borings. Fossil collection as performed by paleontologists, geologists, and other scientists typically involves a rigorous excavation and documentation process.

Unearthing the specimen from the rock is often painstaking work that includes labeling each part of the specimen and cataloging the location of each part within the rock. Those fossils slated for removal from the rock are slowly and carefully excavated using techniques designed to prevent or minimize damage to the specimen.

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Such fossils often become part of museum or university collections. Many other fossils, however, are collected by hobbyists and commercial entities.

Often such specimens are not carefully documented or excavated, resulting in a loss of data from the site and risking potential damage to the specimen.



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