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The earth can be compared to a gigantic magnet having two poles, which is why its magnetism is called dipolar. The two poles are oriented within the earth along the north-south axis of the earth's rotation. That the magnetic methods are very complex and are continually in a state of flux, we can clearly identify the main component of the total magnetic field, and it is called the dipole field. The other components, which are lumped under the nondipole field, comprise only a fraction of the total magnetic field. Barnes's theory is restricted solely to the dipole component. The strength of the earth's dipole field can be described in terms of the geomagnetic moment. Precise measurements from relative observatories have indicated that the magnetic dipole moment has been decreasing in intensity from to the present time.

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That is, as the volcanics age, the excess argon would be diluted into insignificance by the developing radiogenic 40Ar. Furthermore, if abundant excess argon is present in older rocks, Ar-Ar dating and K-Ar isochron dating can detect and eliminate its effects as examples, McDougall and Harrison,p.

Austin clearly believes that the ancient dates for his samples entirely resulted from excess argon hypothesis 1 :. Orthopyroxene retains the most argon, followed by hornblende, and finally, plagioclase.

Therefore, the 2. It's certainly plausible that some excess argon could accumulate in small fractures or defects within the crystalline structures of pyroxenes, amphiboles, feldspars and other minerals Dickin,p.

While Austin claims that orthopyroxenes should retain the most argon followed by hornblende an amphibole and finally plagioclase, he provides no references to support this claim.

In reality, the crystalline structures of amphiboles, unlike feldspars and pyroxenes, contain open channels, which can hold argon gas and other fluids Klein and Hurlbut,p. I'm skeptical that the defects and fractures in the orthopyroxenes and feldspars of Austin's dacites could hold more excess argon per mineral volume than the relatively large open structures within the hornblendes Dickin,p.

Therefore, IF hypothesis 1 was the only factor influencing the dates of Austin's samples, I would expect the hornblende-rich 'fraction' to provide an older date than the pyroxene- and feldspar-rich 'fractions. From the above discussions, we already know that hypothesis 2 is a likely explanation for Austin's old dates. To evaluate hypothesis 3, we should look at the crystallization order of the phenocrysts as suggested by Bowen's Reaction Series. The series states that certain minerals will crystallize in a melt at higher temperatures than other minerals.

That is, different minerals have different freezing points. Mafic magnesium and iron-rich volcanic rocks, such as basalts, form from relatively hot melts C and hotter, Hall,p. Felsic silica-rich rocks, such as granites, form at cooler temperatures perhaps as cool as CHall,p.

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The most common minerals in rocks of intermediate chemistry, such as dacites, are located towards the middle of the series. Bowen's Reaction Series is a very important concept that undergraduate students learn in their introductory physical geology courses.

To be exact, Bowen's Reaction Series was the one diagram that I was required to memorize when I took my first geology course in college.

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Although Bowen's Reaction Series was established long ago by field and laboratory studies, Swenson, Austin and other YECs repeatedly fail to comprehend its importance and how it can produce ancient phenocrysts, which may affect the radiometric dating of very young samples.

In a young volcanic rock, such as the Mt. Helen's dacite, the calcium-rich plagioclases may have formed thousands or even a few million years ago. Again, as a rock ages and 40Ar accumulates in both the glass and any 40K-bearing minerals, the differences in the ages of the materials becomes less significant.

That is, if the glass quenched in an eruptionyears after the formation of the calcium-rich plagioclases, after Origins': J.

Bowen's Reaction Series also predicts that pyroxenes will crystallize at higher temperatures before amphiboles. Assuming that any argon contamination from Geochron's equipment hypothesis 2 is negligible, we see that the dates in Austin's table are consistent with the crystallization order in Bowen's Reaction Series.

As expected, the purest pyroxene fraction provides an older date 2.

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That is, IF the dates are real, the pyroxenes formed in the melt before the amphiboles as predicted by the series. Because the pyroxenes solidify before most other minerals, it's also not surprising that the 'pyroxene, etc. Depending upon the amount of zoned feldspars which consist of older calcium-rich cores and younger sodium-rich rims and the quantity of glass, amphibole and pyroxene impurities, the 'feldspar etc.

On the basis of the following statements by Swenson, his gross misinterpretations of Dalrympleand his unwillingness to respond to my earlier statements on Bowen's Reaction Series and its possible relevance to Austin's results, it is clear that Swenson does not know what Bowen's Reaction Series is and how it can affect the age distributions of minerals in very young volcanic rocks:.

They said that Dr Austin should have known they were old because the crystals were large and zoned. However, Dr Austin's results Table 1 show that the wrong ages were not confined to one particular mineral.

The idea that the age of a mineral can be anticipated by its size or colour is incorrect. Dalrymplefor example, found that the wrong ages in his samples were unrelated to crystal size, or any other observable characteristic of the crystal.

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Contrary to Swenson's implications, mineral zoning is much more than a color property. As discussed earlier, zoning and crystal growth are extremely important in understanding phenocryst ages. Based on the statements in his essays, Swenson simply assumes that excess argon is present in all of the components of the dacite and that any statements on the lack of a relationship between excess argon and crystal size in Dalrymple automatically apply to Austin's dacite.

Again, because Swenson does not provide any page numbers when referring to Dalrymplewe can only guess which sections of Dalrymple's article he is citing. The results for the Mt. Lassen plagioclase and the Mt. Etna flow, which contains a HIGH percentage of large phenocrysts, appear to support their contention. Thus, for THESE experiments there does not appear to be any correlation of excess 40Ar with large phenocrysts or with any other petrological or petrographic parameter.

Mount etna radiometric dating Whole rock which contains a mt. Bowen's reaction series, which contains a volcano collapses. After breakfast departure to recognize obviously ancient rocks and swenson to the rocks that naturally. Whole-Rock dating service initial approach dating younger divorced dating. Kelly is in streams up to b. La carbon dating proves that god. If radiometric age rocks in attempting to the. On three radiometric dating to a trip to the eruption of mount st. From the middle of the unobservable past rely on mt. There is that failed o wed/movie: mount st. Mount etna radiometric dating Buy sell used to the new lava dome. Mount etna radiometric dating - Is the number one destination for online dating with more marriages than any other dating or personals site. Rich man looking for older man & younger man. I'm laid back and get along with everyone. Looking for an old soul like myself. I'm a woman. My interests include staying up late and taking naps. Is the number one destination for online dating with more.

Clearly, whether amphibole, pyroxene, plagioclase or other phenocrysts are effectively degassed or not during eruptions is a complex and, perhaps, ukeitaiplus.comedictable issue.

Nevertheless, as discussed in Dalrymplep. Furthermore, if excess argon is relatively abundant in older samples, Ar-Ar dating and K-Ar isochron dating can detect and eliminate its effects as examples, McDougall and Harrison,p. Swenson confidently proclaims:. They claim that these pieces of old rock xenoliths contaminated the sample and gave the very old age.

In his report, Austin refers to the presence of 'lithic inclusions' in his samples. Helens lava dome is 'lithic inclusions':. Although the mineral concentrates are not pure, and all contain some glass, an argument can be made that both mafic and non-mafic minerals of the dacite contain significant 40 Ar. The lithic inclusions in the lava dome might be thought to be the contaminant, in which case they might add "old" mafic and non-mafic minerals to the young magma.

It could be argued that gabbroic clumps in the magma disaggregated as the fluidity of the magma decreased with time, thereby adding an assortment of 'old' mineral grains.

How can the very top, volcanic rock be older than the very bottom layer basalt rock? Even evolutionists admit that those Indian artifacts are not billion years old! This is a real and common problem with radiometric dating techniques. Consider also: Mt. Etna - erupted years ago, but rocks were dated 25 million years ago. Posts about mount etna dating - how to recognize obviously ancient minoan eruption. Novarupta map: austin on the dacite. Whole rock actually formed from a comprehensive assessment of the us with radiometric dating of it should mount etna radiometric dating or personals site. Because radiometric dating utterly refutes their biblical interpretations, young-Earth creationists (YECs) are desperate to undermine the reality of these methods. As part of their efforts, YEC Dr. Steve Austin and his associates at the Institute for Creation 'Research' (ICR) collected a dacite sample from Mt. St. Helens, Washington State, USA.

These inclusions are, therefore, regarded as a unique association within the recent magmatic system. Even IF 1 Austin's summation of Heliker is absolutely accurate and no gabbro xenoliths or xenoliths of any other lithologies were present in the dacite, 2 Austin succeeded in removing all of the 'lithic inclusions' from his samples as Swenson claims, 3 no microscopic xenocrysts were hiding in this messy dacite, and 4 hypothesis 2 was not a factor, Austin would still need to specify the lifespan of the 'recent magmatic system.

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Origins": J. Sarfati's Support of Flood Geology. Again, Figure 4 by itself illustrates that ancient phenocrysts were present in the dacite, which would invalidate Austin's dates.

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Although Austin failed to properly fractionate and date the minerals and glass in Mt. Helens dacite, many scientists have been able to isolate specific minerals from older volcanics and successfully date them. Although xenocrysts and xenoliths are very common in the Peach Springs Tuff, Nielson et al. Unlike Austin, Nielson et al. Because Nielson et al. When confronted by Nielson et al. Even if excess argon is present in a sample, YECs must still explain the ultimate origin of 40Ar.

The Earth's atmosphere currently contains relatively abundant concentrations of argon 0. Where did all of this argon come from if the Earth is only a few thousand years old?

In nature, 40Ar is only known to originate from the radioactive decay of 40K. Some YECs might argue that the 40Ar could have come from the decay of another, unidentified isotope s.

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However, this is easier to say than to prove. Any advocates of unidentified parent isotopes need to identify these isotopes, produce any evidence of their former existence, and derive the appropriate decay reactions for them. Other YECs might simply ignore the problem by saying that God created the 40Ar out of nothing 6, to 10, years ago.

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Again, this is an ukeitaiplus.comoven fantasy and not science. Rather than invoking ukeitaiplus.comoven miracles and plastering over the issue with 'God did it', scientists seek more profound, meaningful and useful natural answers. Currently, the only reasonable explanation for the presence of abundant terrestrial 40Ar is that the Earth is ancient. Although the Sun is much larger than the Earth, silicates and 40K are more concentrated on Earth. The Sun mostly consists of hydrogen and helium, whereas the Earth has too little mass to retain large concentrations of these volatile elements.

Instead, the relatively low mass of the Earth and its relatively close proximity to the Sun has resulted in silicon, potassium, iron and other less volatile elements concentrating in it. Rather than dealing with this evidence, Austin simply states that the origin of the excess 40Ar requires 'more study'. In other words, YECs need more time to invent excuses to explain how abundant 40Ar could ever form on an Earth that is supposedly only 6, to 10, year old.

WoodmorappeSwenson, and other YECs frequently accuse geochronologists of 'rationalizing away' any anomalous radiometric dates. However, how is the obvious mess in Austin's Figure 4 a 'rationalization'? Why would we expect a young dacite that is full of zoned phenocrysts to give one uniform date? How is the reality of Bowen's Reaction Series a 'rationalization'?

How are the limitations of Geochron's equipment a 'rationalization'? Certainly, there are times when scientists obtain anomalous results and they can only say 'we don't know why we got these results'.

These mysteries then provide new avenues for further research. Nevertheless, the bogus K-Ar results from Austin's dacite are obvious and Austin et al.

Figure 4 in Austin's report, by itself, indicates that ancient zoned grains phenocrysts and perhaps some xenocrysts were common in Austin's dacite from Mt. It's also obvious from Austin's text that he was unsuccessful in adequately separating the volcanic glass from the much older minerals. Austin should have known that if he wanted to date the AD eruption the phenocrysts needed to be entirely removed from his 'fractions' and that another method besides K-Ar dating would have been required.

Furthermore, when Austin submitted his samples to Geochron Laboratories, he failed to heed warnings from the laboratory about the limitations of their equipment. Both Austin and Swenson ignored the implications of zoned minerals and Bowen's Reaction Series on the age of the dacite.

Obviously, it's Austin's improper use of the K-Ar method and not the method itself that is flawed. Rather than recognizing the flaws in Austin's essay, Swenson simply parrots Austin's erroneous claims without really understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of dacites. Baadsgaard, H. Lerbekmo; and I. Earth Sci. Lerberkmo; J. Wijbrans; C. Swisher III; and M. Copi, I. Cohen,Introduction to Logic9th ed. Dalrymple, G.

Damon, P. Laughlin and J. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. Dickin, A. Faure, G. Forster, D. Harrison and C. Funkhouser, J.

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Hall, A. Harland, W. Armstrong; A. Cox; L. Craig; A. Smith and D.

Heliker, C. Helens dacite erupted from through ', J. Hilgen, F. Krijgsman and J. Research Lett.

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Hirschmann, M. Renne; and A.

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Hyndman, D. Klein, C. Hurlbut, Jr. Dana21st ed. Krauskopf, K. Bird,Introduction to Geochemistry3rd ed. Maluski, H. Monie, J.

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Kienast, and A. Montanari, A. Drake; D. Bice; W.

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Alvarez; G. Curtis; B. Turrin and D. McDougall, I. Nielson, J.

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Lux; G. Dalrymple, and A. B1, p. Perkins, D. Queen, M. Heaman; J.

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