Further, we assess how parental monitoring may be modified by pubertal maturation and older sibling risky behavior. Data on delinquent peer affiliation, pubertal maturation, parental monitoring, older sibling risky behavior, and dating involvement were gathered through observations and surveys from adolescents, mothers, older siblings, and teachers. Pubertal maturation was directly related to dating involvement for early daters. Findings emphasize the value of examining social and biological factors, in concert, over time. Romantic identity and sexual identity formation are key developmental tasks for adolescents-making involvement with, and the salience of, romantic interests increasingly important Furman, ; Hartup, These social timetable theories posit that early involved youth are not as equipped to handle the emotional demands of these relationships Neemann et al. However, elucidating the context that promotes entry into relationships has important implications for both theory and prevention e.
In a meta-anlaysis, Harvard professor William H. Jeynes discovered parental expectations have the largest effect on student academic achievement. Professor Douglas B. Downey of Ohio State University presents arguments that this is particularly true when parents combine responsiveness and warmth with their high expectations.
There are potential continued benefits to this, as there is some evidence that this is a cyclical relationship and that prior student achievement affects parental expectations, according to Julie Grossman, Megan Kuhn-McKearin and William Strein with the University of Maryland. The New York Times reported that the children of college-educated mothers scored higher at age 3 than those whose mothers dropped out of school. According to Professor Davis-Kean, higher parental income is also a predictor of academic achievement.
Christine Jax has been a writer since in the areas of education, parenting and family relationships.
As parental PAC increased, individuals with more conservative sexual values demonstrated little change or a decrease in sexual partners whereas individuals with more liberal sexual values increased their number of sexual partners. For unsafe sex with monogamous and non-monogamous partners, only sexual values and high school unsafe sexual practices predicted college unsafe sexual behavior.
Thus other factors, such as personal attitudes and expectancies that were developed earlier in life, may be more important than perceived awareness and caring for unsafe sexual behaviors in college.
Although this study provided insight into social influences on sexual behaviors across an important developmental transition, its limitations should be noted. First, participants were recruited only from students enrolled in a single large, public university; thus, results may not generalize to a wider population of students or to non-college bound students. The sample demographics, however, represented wide diversity, enhancing confidence in the relative representativeness of current findings to other populations.
Second, the current analyses examined data from only two time points, thereby limiting conclusions to the initial transition into college.
As college peer groups solidify and relationships with parents continue to mature, the role of perceived awareness and caring may shift over time. This has proven to be the case for peer norms about collegiate alcohol use, whereby inaccurate perceptions influence personal alcohol consumption more strongly than actual peer alcohol use.
An additional limitation included the wide range of options for non-monogamous sexual behavior from 2 to more than In addition, the combined assessment of knowing and caring as one construct precluded a test of the relative contributions of perceptions of knowing and perceptions of caring. The current research, however, was based on the belief that both knowing and caring would have the strongest influence on behavior, and that these components in concert produce feelings of anonymity or scrutiny for the individual.
Finally, alternative explanations for the ways in which perceived awareness and caring may influences sexual behavior have not been fully explored. For example, different levels of PAC from others could be associated with different levels of self-esteem, which could also lead to increased or decreased behavioral risks. Genetic influences could also account for associations between PAC and sexual behavior and should be examined in future research.
The current study contributes to the literature on the etiology of adolescent and emerging adulthood sexual behaviors, with distinct effects of both parental and peer influences on men and women during the transition from high school to college. In particular, this study highlighted the need for additional research on influences of sexual behavior during this pivotal time of change and development.
Specifically, findings indicated that potentially unsafe sexual practices and subsequent increased risk for contracting STIs develop before emerging adults enter the college environment.
Of the 19 million new STIs that occur each year, almost half of them occur among people aged Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,which illustrates the need for early education and intervention programs for younger adolescents. In particular, it seems women may be at higher risk for STIs given the finding that women have increased numbers of sexual partners once entering college.
Furthermore, sexual values were important influences on sexual behavior and, as such, should be considered when planning interventions and education programs.
These liberal-based programs may be ideal for persons who have liberal values because their sexual behavior increases, despite parental and peer awareness and caring.
In some cases, however, it would seem that safer-sex interventions may benefit with parental involvement. For individuals with more conservative values, parents may deter their youth from engaging in potentially risky sex by demonstrating their awareness of behavior and adopting a caring attitude. In sum, these findings supported the importance of perceived awareness and caring from parents and peers in promoting safer sexual practices and reducing STIs.
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Neal, P. Wetherill, P.
Therefore, these variables were not included in the reported analyses. Reagan R. Dan J. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
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Arch Sex Behav. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan WetherillDan J. Nealand Kim Fromme. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Arch Sex Behav. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Several decades of research have identified the contributions of psychosocial influences on adolescent and young adult sexual behavior; however, few studies have examined parental and peer influence and sexual values during the transition from high school to college.
Keywords: Parents, Peers, Sexual behavior, College students. Perceived Awareness and Caring During the transition from high school to college, emerging adults Arnett,often rely on the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers to help guide them through this unstable time. Sexual Values Research remains unclear about the potential influence of sexual values and attitudes during the transition from high school to college. Table 1 Summary statistics and comparisons between participants providing data at both time points and participants who did not.
Open in a separate window. Procedure Participants were invited to access Internet-based surveys through a secure website DatStat, Seattle, WAwhere they provided informed consent and completed the initial survey about their last three months of high school.
Parental influence on dating
Measures Demographic measures included gender, age, ethnicity, and parental income. Table 2 Means and SDs for perceived awareness and caring items. Drank alcohol 3. Used illicit drugs 3. Had sex oral, vaginal, or anal 3. Where you were going 4. What you were doing 4.
Amount of alcohol you drank 3. How often you drank alcohol 3. How often you smoked marijuana 3. Used ecstasy or other designer drugs 3. Used other drugs 3. Having sex 3. Aggressive actions 3. Sexual Values Sexual values were assessed only during high school and included five items that were adapted from Perkins and Berkowitz see Appendix 2. Analysis of Change from High School to College The second hypothesis was that peer and parental PAC would decrease, and sexual behaviors would increase, across the transition from high school to college.
Table 4 Descriptive and inferential statistics for peer PAC, parental PAC, sexual values, number of sexual partners, occasions of unsafe sex with monogamous partners, and occasions of unsafe sex with non-monogamous partners. Table 5 Longitudinal associations predicting college PAC.
Longitudinal Analysis of Sexual Values and PAC on Sexual Behavior The fourth hypothesis was that sexual values would moderate the longitudinal associations among high school parental and peer PAC on college sexual behavior.
Discussion The current study tested the associations between perceived awareness and caring from parents and peers and sexual values with sexual behavior during the transition from high school to college. Sexual Values, Perceived Awareness and Caring, and Sexual Behaviors Not surprisingly, more conservative sexual values were associated with fewer sexual partners and less frequent unsafe sex, whereas more liberal sexual values were associated with more frequent sexual behavior.
Temporal Changes from High School to College Both parental and peer perceived awareness and caring decreased across the transition from high school to college, which is consistent with developmentally appropriate changes associated with college matriculation.
Longitudinal Analysis of Sexual Values, Perceived Awareness and Caring, and Sexual Behaviors Longitudinal trends revealed that perceived awareness and caring from parents moderated only the association between sexual values and the number of sexual partners during the past three months. Limitations Although this study provided insight into social influences on sexual behaviors across an important developmental transition, its limitations should be noted. Implications and Conclusions The current study contributes to the literature on the etiology of adolescent and emerging adulthood sexual behaviors, with distinct effects of both parental and peer influences on men and women during the transition from high school to college.
Appendix 1 Perceived awareness and caring parents; peers.
Parental influence, particularly during adolescence, is not always as simple and straightforward as one would like. It can be confusing. So the mother complains about how her teenage son, suddenly. Research on Parental and Peer Influence and Dating Experiences and Abuse. Notwithstanding growing evidence on the role of peers in dating experiences, researchers have often studied the capacity of early family relationships to predict the course of intimate relationships. In accordance with Social Learning and Attachment theories, children's Cited by: 2. A Parent's Influence Courtesy of keitaiplus.com and dating their first boyfriend or girlfriend. These rites of passage are important to most teens, and one study revealed that a parent's inactivity or absence during those times made teens more likely to create their own moments by participating in risky behaviors such as drinking, drug.
Whether you drank alcohol? Whether you used illicit drugs? Whether you had sex oral, vaginal, or anal? Whether you got into a physical fight or verbal argument? What you were doing and who you were with when you were not in class or studying? Where you were going when you went out at night and on weekends? The amount of alcohol that you drank? How often if ever you drank alcohol? How often if ever you smoked marijuana?
Whether you used ecstasy or other designer drugs? Whether you used drugs other than marijuana or designer drugs?
Asia A. Eaton, Dionne P. Stephens, in Adolescent Dating Violence, Parental Communications. The traditional Hispanic value of familism may support parental influence on adolescents' beliefs about appropriate dating behaviors, intimacy, and interpersonal interactions that serve to benefit all members of the familial unit (Oramas, Stephens, & Whiddon, ). This study examines the influence of family, peer, and biological contributors to dating involvement among early adolescents ( years of age; n = ). Further, we assess how parental monitoring may be modified by pubertal maturation and older sibling risky keitaiplus.com by: 2. Jun 28, Parental Education and Income. The more educated the parents, the greater the influence on their child's school performance, in part because they provide their children with more outside educational opportunities, according to University of Michigan professors Eccles and Davis-Kean, and because they understand what types of decisions need to be made as early as middle school.
Whether you were having sex? Your aggressive actions? Appendix 2 Sexual values. It is okay for me to have more than one sexual relationship at a time e. It is okay for me to have casual sex without being in a relationship e.
Footnotes 1 Not included in the current analyses were participants who would complete a high school and Year 4 assessment and participants who would complete only the Year 4 assessment.
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Contributor Information Reagan R. References American College Health Association.
Parental Influence. A child's earliest exposure to what it means to be male or female comes from parents (Lauer & Lauer, ; Santrock, ; Kaplan, ). The parents treat their children male or female in different manners when they are babies. The discrimination has been made in the style of dressing, type of dressing, colors of the. Parental Influences on Sexual Activity. Longitudinal studies suggest that parents influence the behavior of their offspring through both support (Ream & Savin-Williams, ) and monitoring (Borawski, Ievers-Landis, Lovegreen, & Trapl, ).Parental support relates to the quality of the parent-child relationship and includes involvement and encouragement in their child's life and Cited by: The hard part of this process is the beginning because before the positive parental influence can be claimed, the negative influence must be acknowledged, and this requires rationalization.
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