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These groups use the most modern weaponry and technology, and their crimes have created worldwide concerns. Their goal is to return the Islamic world to the medieval age. At the same time, the corrupt dictatorial Arab regimes in the Middle East, particularly the Arab nations of the Persian Gulf, have transformed the democratic Arab Spring into a sectarian war between the Shiites and Sunnis, in order to prevent democracy from taking roots in their own nations. Simultaneous with such developments, a Western-made "industry" called Islamophobia not only presents the Holy Quran as the manifesto of fundamentalist warmongers that claim to represent Islam and their rigid interpretation of its teachings, it also reduces Islam to its skewed "interpretations. The approach also claims that formation of an Islamic government is a necessary condition for a society to be Islamic. Islam and secularism are completely compatible.

He then quoted the Prophet himself: "You know your life's affairs and I know your religious affairs. After the Prophet passed away, his followers chose, through the elite, Abu Bakr As-Siddiq as their ruler, which is why the Sunnis believe that electing the ruler must be done by the elite. Muslim scholar Qazi Abduljabbar Mo'tazeli who lived about a thousand years agosaid, "The elite, as the people who signed on the Imamat, consult other Muslims" al-Moqni and, "Make sure that everyone has been consented upon.

He is the Shiites' first Imam, and they believe that his children Hassan and Hussein and their descendants were the next eleven Imams who were all sinless and had divine power. Throughout history such claims have been rejected by a majority of Muslims. The Quran states explicitly that God sent the prophets so that the people would not have any arguments against Him [regarding lack of knowledge].

In other words, the people need only the prophets and their own wisdom. The Quran states, "Messengers [Prophets] were as bearers of glad tidings [for the believers] as well as warners [for the disbelievers] in order that mankind should not have argument against Allah after sending the messengers" Surat An-Nisa'. If after sending the prophets the people had still needed other arguments, the Quran would have emphasized that God sent both the prophets and the Shiites' Imams, so as the people could not have had any argument against Him [for lack of knowledge], but the Quran has mentioned only the prophets Surahs Taha verse and al-Israa The current Shiite-Sunni confrontation has nothing to do with what the close companions and supporters of the Prophet did.

The rift was born much later. Ali, the Shiites' first Imam and the Sunnis' fourth Caliph after the Prophet, praised the three Caliphs before him, who are revered by the Sunnis. He also attributed his own rule and those of the other three Caliphs to the people's selection and consent, not God or the Prophet. Thus, the issue of electing a ruler is addressed by the people, not by God or the Prophet.

Apr 18,   First, the notion of an Islamic state is highly contentious and is not limited to Islamists. Second, the notion of the secular is largely rejected or at best is an uncomfortable and vague idea. This is why Muslim-majority nations will struggle with the role of religion in politics for a long time to come. Secular:Denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis. Muslim:A follower of the religion of Islam. So a secular Muslim would imply an oxymoron. Or, humouring a person who calls themself a Muslim without. Muslim dating is a term that has risen as the world has become more globalized and secular. While Muslim dating is considered a controversial topic, many Muslims are beginning to wonder whether the idea of dating is such a bad thing. Traditionally, the concept of dating while Muslim was frowned upon and was actually considered taboo; however.

To prove their claim regarding Ali, Shiites invoke what the Prophet said, "Whoever considers me as the master, should do the same with Ali," during the Ghadeer Khumm.

The Sunni claim that the Prophet did not mean "master," but meant, "Whoever likes and respects me, should do the same with Ali," where the Prophet supposedly announced to the people that his son-in-law would be his successor, and all those who believed in him should also believe in Imam Ali. But, one cannot find any credible historical document or evidence that Imam Ali himself invoked Ghadeer Khumm in order to justify his rule.

In Nahj al-Balaghathe most famous collection of sermons, letters, and narrations attributed to him, Imam Ali attributes the legitimacy of the rules of the three Caliphs before him, namely, Abu Bakr, Umar ibn Khattaband Uthman ibn Affanto allegiance of the people with them.

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In other words, he confirms what the Sunnis claim about the successors to the Prophet. He states in Nahj al-Balaghaletter 6 :. Verily, those who pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman have also pledged allegiance to me on the same basis that they swore allegiance to them.

He who was present cannot choose another Caliph, and he who was absent has no right to reject; consultation is confined to the Muhajirun [immigrants from Mecca to Medina] and the Ansar [close supporters and companions of the Prophet]. If they agree on an individual and take him to be their Imam, it will be deemed to please Allah.

A person who was supposedly appointed by God could not have spoken in that manner because, otherwise, he would have disobeyed God. Ali also states ibid. By Allah, I had no desire for the Caliphate, nor any need to rule, but you made me to accept it and burdened me with its consequent duties.

If God had appointed Ali as the caliph, he would have been neither reluctant nor would he have made any reference to people electing him to be his ruler.

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Did Prophet Muhammad ever tell the people that they had selected him? No, he did not. Ali talks about people's huge wave of support for him and his reluctance to accept it ibid. You [the people] ran towards me shouting, 'Allegiance, allegiance, allegiance,' like female camels advancing their calves. I held back my hand, you pulled it towards yourselves. I drew back my hand but you dragged it.

How was it possible that God and the Prophet had chosen Ali, but even after people had turned to him, he tried to turn them down, saying ibid. Leave me and seek someone else If you leave me, I am one like you, and will listen to and obey whomsoever you put in charge of your affairs. I am better for you as a counselor than as your chief. Imam Ali accepted Umar as his son-in-law, allowing him to marry his daughter, Umm Kulthum. He said, "Abu Bakr assumed leadership with goodwill and reigned with justice," and, "Umar undertook the charge of leadership, was well-behaved and auspicious and pious.

After the Prophet manifested whatever he was commanded to and conveyed the messages of His Lord, Allah the Glorified, took his soul, may Allah's greetings and blessings be upon him.

Then, Muslims elected two eminent successors to him and the two ruled in compliance with the Quran and Sunnah, adopted his model and did not deviate from it. Allah, then, took their souls, May Allah be satisfied with them. May Allah reward Umar who straightened the deviated, cured the disease, abandoned mischief and established the Sunnah. He departed [from this world] with untarnished clothes and little shortcomings.

He achieved good of this world and remained safe from its evils. He offered obeyed Allah and feared Him as He deserved. If Imam Ali had been chosen by God and the Prophet as the successor, and Abu Bakr and Umar had violated God's and the Prophet's will and had usurped his rights, would he had spoken about them like the above?

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The historic Ghadeer Khumm event took place a few months before the Prophet passed away. How was it possible that the Prophet's best and closest supporters, whom the Quran has repeatedly praised, violated his explicit and clear order regarding Ali as his successor? And, if they had, would Ali have judged them so positively? When the dissidents staged an uprising against Uthman and surrendered his home, they asked Imam Ali to speak to him as their envoy. He went to Uthman and told him ibid.

The people are behind me and they have made me an arbiter between you and themselves; but by Allah, I do not know what to say to you. I know nothing [about this matter] that you do not know, nor can I lead you to any matter of which you are not aware. You certainly know what we know; we have not come to know anything before you that we could tell you; nor did we learn anything in secret that we should convey to you. You have seen as we have seen and you have heard as we have.

You sat in the company of the Prophet of Allah as we did. Abu Bakr and Umar were no more responsible for acting righteously than you, since you were closer than both of them to the Prophet of Allah through kinship, and you also hold relationship to him by marriage, which they did not hold. Uthman was being toppled, and was not in a position of power that would compel the Imam to praise him and, most importantly, appoint his beloved sons, Hassan and Hussein, as Uthman's protectors.

In Nahj al-Balagha he presents himself as someone who liked Uthman. He wrote that A'isha [the Prophet's wife], Talha and Zubair [two prominent companions of the Prophet] were the main provocateurs against Uthman, adding that people were satisfied with his election [as Uthman's successor] ibid. I am appraising you of what befell Uthman so [correctly] that its hearing may be like its seeing: People criticized him, and I was the only man from amongst the Muhajirun who asked him to seek satisfying the Muslims most and to offend them the least.

As for Talha and as Zubair, their lightest step about him was hard and their softest voice was strong. A'isha too was in a rage with him [Uthman]. Consequently, a group overpowered him and killed him. Then, people pledged allegiance to me, not by force or compulsion, but obediently and out of free will.

Ali's rationale is that of one who had been elected by the people expressed through the pledge of allegiance by the tribal leadersnot someone chosen by God.

Dec 10,   Muhammad had been on various secular dating websites before he decided to give Muslim online matchmaking a try. "It was round about Easter .

He states ibid. Caliphate is allegiance only once. It is not open to reconsideration, nor is there any scope for fresh proceedings of elections. He who remains out of it is fussy [seeking faults], and he who is ambivalent upon it is a hypocrite. In letter 28 of Nahj al-Balagha pp. He mentions his obedience to God and the fact that he is a relative of the Prophet, saying, "No one was closer to the Prophet than me.

Clearly, if that had had happened, Imam Ali would not have forgotten it. In the same letter he emphasized that when the uprising against Uthman began, he did everything he could to help Uthman.

In sermon 67 ibid. In his letter to Talha and Zubair, Ali's entire argument is that he was elected by the people, not by God and the Prophet ibid. I did not pursue the people till they approached me, and I did not ask them to pledge their allegiance to me till they themselves did so; and both of you were among those who approached me and swore allegiance to me.

Certainly, the people did not swear allegiance to me due to any force exerted on them or for any reward given to them. If you two pledged your allegiance to me obediently, come back and offer repentance to Allah soon, but if you swore allegiance to me reluctantly, you have certainly given me a reason for action by pretending obedience and concealing your disobedience.

By my life, you were not more entitled than other Muhajirun to conceal and hide the matter. Your refusing allegiance before entering into it would have been easier than getting out of it after having accepted it. We see that, a Ali makes no mentions of having been appointed by the Prophet as his successor; b he speaks about declaring allegiance by free will; c he does not condemn non-allegiance to him, by swearing to it and then breaking it, and d if he had been chosen by God to rule, there would have been no need for any argument.

Note: Ali was elected by the people, but the Shiites generally believe that he was chosen by God, and that is the part that this article is critiquing. So far, we resorted to religious texts, such as the Quran and Nahj al-Balaghaand we critiqued and rejected the notion of a divine and Islamic government. But, one can also critique the notion of an "Islamic government" from a historical perspective. Some have referred to the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties as the "Islamic empires," but what does that mean?

Ibn Khaldun, renowned Muslim historian, has described the process of transformation of the caliphate to monarchy. At the end of chapter 25 of his book, the Muqaddamih: an Introduction to Historyhe considers religion as the steward of "people's otherworldly affairs Whereas political laws govern the expediencies of this world.

In chapter 30 of his book, Ibn Khaldun critiques the Shiites' claim that the imamat is one of the principal pillars of Islam and states that governance is "a public expediency that has been left to the views of the people.

Ibn Khaldun writes that while the four original caliphs considered religion in their rules, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties transformed the caliphate to "absolute monarchy" and were after enriching themselves, conquering the world, concentrating more powers in their hands and lasciviousness.

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Ibn Khaldun did not mean that the two dynasties formed Islamic governments, rather he was comparing them with the kings of his own era. The Shiites, Khawarij and Mu'tazila viewed the Umayyad as corrupt, usurpatory, and apostate. As Duncan Black McDonald states in his book, Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theoryeven the " Murjites - a group of early Muslims that believed that only God has the authority to judge who is a true Muslim and who is not - did not deny the corrupt nature of the Umayyad kings, but they also believed that because the people had pledged their allegiance to the Umayyad, obeying them was a religious duty; only apostasy would necessitate uprising against them.

In his book, al-Milal wa al-Nihalthe influential Iranian historian of Islam, Muhammad ibn Abdul Karim Shahrestani writes that, "The Suleimanieh branch of Zeidieh, the Mu'tazila, [both Shiite groups] and the followers of hadith and Sunnah believe that it is not necessary for the Imam [ruler] to be a religious scholar, "because emaamat is not a religious affair that we need in order to understand God and His unitary nature.

It would suffice for him to have access to religious scholars that can address his religious issues. What is necessary for him is having strong thoughts and correct insight into analyzing what is happening. As already mentioned, Ibn Khaldun analyzed the process of transformation of the caliphate to absolute monarchy.

In his book, Arab Political ReasonMohammed Abed al-Jabrithe Moroccan critic and professor of philosophy and Islamic thoughts explains clearly that the basis for selecting the four caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali was tribal interests, not beliefs, whereas Islam's message is having faith in God and rejection of tribalism.

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Thus, Abed al-Jabi also did not consider the rules of the caliphs as Islamic government. He also showed that right after the death of the Prophet the tribal wars, which had stopped during the Prophet, began again.

The tribes were used as a criterion for choosing the ruler, as well as tribal discriminating against others. That is who Ali was isolated. The concept of electing a ruler by the elite has been expanded in the modern era.

Just as everyone can cast a vote in Western societies, Muslims in Islamic countries although the people of the Arab nations of the Persian Gulf do not yet have such a right have gradually gained the right to vote. Thus, what does it mean to run a nation by an Islamic government? Running a nation requires four ingredients:. The first is managementwhich consists of knowledge and skills. Knowledge is the result of natural and experimental sciences. Skills come about as a result of practice.

None of these has anything to do with religion and Islam. The second is planningwhich is done by knowledge and science. No religion, including Islam, has anything to offer to its adherents about planning. The third is societal and moral values. Although all religions, including Islam, support moral precepts, they are in fact independent of religion and do not rely on it.

Muslim dating sites have made it easier than ever for single Muslims to date within their faith and find a partner who sees the world in the same way. We've put together a list of the 10 best Muslim dating websites for singles. Whether you're seeking friendship, casual dating, or marriage, these single Muslim dating websites can offer you a. Today, some Muslim-majority countries define themselves as or are regarded as secular, and many of them have a dual system in which Muslims can bring familial and financial disputes to sharia courts. The exact jurisdiction of these courts varies from country to country, but usually includes marriage, divorce, inheritance, and guardianship. "A secular Muslim is thus someone who not only believes in the separation of religion from the state, but also believes that such a separation is compatible with Islam." Based on the Quran, the Sunnah, and religious texts, my argument is that a union between Islam and secularism is possible and justifiable.

Muslim scholars refer to values as the "rational autonomies. Justice is not religious; it is religion that must be just. Peace is not a religious affair; it is religion that must defend peace. Freedom of thought, expression and behavior is not religious; religion must recognize freedom.

Development is not a religious affair; it is religion that must defend development. Being a good human being is not a religious teaching; although religions also recognize the dignity of the people. If a religion does not respect the people, it will not receive respect from them.

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Secularism has been a controversial concept in Islamic political thought, owing in part to historical factors and in part to the ambiguity of the concept itself.

Some Islamic reformists like Ali Abdel Raziq and Mahmoud Mohammed Taha have advocated a secular state in the sense of political order that does not impose any single interpretation of sharia on the nation.

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A number of pre-modern polities in the Islamic world demonstrated some level of separation between religious and political authority, even if they did not adhere to the modern concept of a state with no official religion or religion-based laws.

The exact jurisdiction of these courts varies from country to country, but usually includes marriage, divorce, inheritance, and guardianship. Secularism is an ambiguous concept that could be understood to refer to anticlericalism, atheism, state neutrality toward religion, the separation of religion from state, banishment of religious symbols from the public sphere, or disestablishment separation of church and state[4] although the latter meaning would not be relevant in the Islamic context, since Islam has no institution corresponding to this sense of "church".

There is no word in Arabic, Persian or Turkish corresponding exactly to the English term "secularism".

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The concept of secularism was imported along with many of the ideas of post-enlightenment modernity from Europe into the Muslim world, namely Middle East and North Africa.

Among Muslim intellectuals, the early debate on secularism centered mainly on the relationship between religion and state, and how this relationship was related to European successes in science, technology and governance.

Islam portal. John L. Espositoa professor of international affairs and Islamic studies, points out: "the post-independent period witnessed the emergence of modern Muslim states whose pattern of development was heavily influenced by and indebted to Western secular paradigms or models.

Saudi Arabia and Turkey reflected the two polar positions. Esposito also argues that in many modern Muslim countries the role of Islam in state and society as a source of legitimization for rulers, state, and government institutions was greatly decreased though the separation of religion and politics was not total.

However while most Muslim governments replaced Islamic law with legal systems inspired by western secular codes, Muslim family law marriage, divorce, and inheritance remained in force. However, a majority of Muslims argue that, unlike Christianity, Islam does not separate religion from the state and many Muslims around the world welcome a significant role for Islam in their countries' political life.

Furthermore, the resurgence of Islam, beginning with the Iranian revolution of -9, defied the illusions of advocates of secularization theory. The resurgence of Islam in politics in the most modernizing of Muslim countries, such as Egypt, Algeria and Turkey, betrayed expectations of those who believed religion should be at the margins not the center of public life.

Furthermore, in most cases, it was not rural but urban phenomena, and its leaders and supporters were educated professionals.

From a more historical perspective, scholar Olivier Roy argues that "a defacto separation between political power" of sultans and emirs and religious power of the caliph was "created and institutionalized The sovereign's religious function was to defend the Islamic community against its enemies, institute the shariaensure the public good maslaha. The state was an instrument to enable Muslims to live as good Muslims and Muslims were to obey the sultan if he did so.

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The legitimacy of the ruler was "symbolized by the right to coin money and to have the Friday prayer Jumu'ah khutba said in his name. Ira M. Lapidusan Emeritus Professor of Middle Eastern and Islamic History at The University of California at Berkeley, notes that religious and political power was united while the Prophet Muhammad was leading the ummahresulting in a non-secular state.

But Lapidus states that by the 10th century, some governments in the Muslim world had developed an effective separation of religion and politics, due to political control passing "into the hands of generals, administrators, governors, and local provincial lords; the Caliphs had lost all effective political power".

These governments were still officially Islamic and committed to the religion, but religious authorities had developed their own hierarchies and bases of power separate from the political institutions governing them:. In the same period, religious communities developed independently of the states or empires that ruled them. The ulama regulated local communal and religious life by serving as judges, administrators, teachers, and religious advisers to Muslims.

The religious elites were organized according to religious affiliation into Sunni schools of law, Shi'ite sects, or Sufi tariqas. Lapidus argues that the religious and political cts of Muslim communal life came to be separated by Arab rebellions against the Caliphate, the emergence of religious activity independent of the actual authority of the Caliphs, and the emergence of the Hanbali school of law.

The Umayyad caliphate was seen as a secular state by many Muslims at the time, some of whom disapproved of the lack of integration of politics and religion. This perception was offset by a steady stream of wars that aimed to expand Muslim rule past the caliphate's borders. In early Islamic philosophyAverroes presented an argument in The Decisive Treatise providing a justification for the emancipation of science and philosophy from official Ash'ari theology.

Because of this, some consider Averroism a precursor to modern secularism. Many of the early supporters of Secularist principles in Middle Eastern countries were Baathist and non-Muslim Arabsseeking a solution to a multi-confessional population and an ongoing drive to modernism.

Many Islamic modernist thinkers argued against the inseparability of religious and political authorities in the Islamic world, and described the system of separation between religion and state within their ideal Islamic world. He argued that the Caliph did not represent religious authority, because he was not infallible nor was the Caliph the person whom the revelation was given to; therefore, according to Abduh, the Caliph and other Muslims are equal.

Abdel Rahman Al-Kawakibi, in his book "Taba'i' Al-Istibdad The Characteristics of Tyranny ", discussed the relationship between religion and despotism, [27] arguing that "while most religions tried to enslave the people to the holders of religious office who exploited them, the original Islam was built on foundations of political freedom standing between democracy and aristocracy. The amir expressed his opinion that "religion is one thing and the government is another The administration of religion and the administration of the government were never united in Islam.

According to the scholar, Eliezer Tauber:.

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He was of the opinion that according to Islam 'the rule over the nation is in its own hands The caliph has no superiority in law over the lowest of the congregation; he only executes the religious law and the will of the nation. What is unique in Rida's thought is that he provided details of his ideas about the future Arab empire in a document, which he called the "General Organic Law of the Arab Empire".

Rida argued that the general administrative policy of the future empire would be managed by a president, a council of deputies to be elected from the entire empire, and a council of ministers to be chosen by the president from among the deputies.

There, the caliph must recognize the 'General Organic Law' and abide by it. He would manage all the religious matters of the empire. Rida's ideal Islamic empire would be administered in practice by a president, while the caliph would administer only religious affairs and would be obliged to recognize the organic law of the empire and abide by it.

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As seen above, these arguments about separability of religious and political authorities in the Islamic world were greatly connected with the presence of the Caliphate. Therefore, the abolishment of the Caliphate by Turkish government in had considerable influence on such arguments among Muslim intellectuals. He argued that there were no clear evidence in the Quran and the hadithwhich justify a common assumption: to accept the authority of the caliph is an obligation.

Furthermore, he claimed that it was not even necessary that the ummah should be politically united and religion has nothing to do with one form of government rather than another. He argued that there is nothing in Islam which forbids Muslims to destroy their old political system and build a new one on the basis or the newest conceptions of the human spirit and the experience of nations.

He was later removed from his position. Rosenthall commented on him saying:. Taha Husseinan Egyptian writer, was also an advocate for the separation of religion and politics from a viewpoint of Egyptian nationalism. Hussein believed that Egypt always had been part of Western civilization and that Egypt had its renaissance in the nineteenth century and had re-Europeanized itself. For him, the distinguishing mark of the modern world is that it has brought about a virtual separation of religion and civilization, each in its own sphere.

It is therefore quite possible to take the bases of civilization from Europe without its religion, Christianity. Moreover, he believed that it is easier for Muslims than for Christians, since Islam has no priesthood, and so in his view there was no vested interest in the control of religion over society.

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Azza Karam describes secular feminists as follows: "Secular feminists firmly believe in grounding their discourse outside the realm of any religion, whether Muslim or Christian, and placing it, instead within the international human rights discourse.

To them religion is respected as a private matter for each individual, but it is totally rejected as a basis from which to formulate any agenda on women's emancipation. By so doing, they avoid being caught up in interminable debates on the position of women with religion. They argue that secularism was important for protecting civil rights. Secularism in Turkey was both dramatic and far reaching as it filled the vacuum of the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Throughout the 20th century secularism was continuously challenged by Islamists.

At the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century, political Islamists and Islamic democrats such as the Welfare Party and Justice and Development Party AKP gained in influence, with the AKP in the elections acquiring government and holding on to it ever since with increasingly authoritarian methods.

Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy within the overall framework of Confessionalisma form of consociationalism in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities.

Under the leadership of Habib Bourguiba -Tunisia's post independence government pursued a program of secularization. Bourguiba modified laws regarding habous religious endowmentssecularized education and unified the legal system so that all Tunisians, regardless of religion, were subject to the state courts. He restricted the influence of the religious University of Ez-Zitouna and replaced it with a faculty of theology integrated into the University of Tunis, banned the headscarf for women, made members of the religious hierarchy state employees and ordered that the expenses for the upkeep of mosques and the salaries of preachers to be regulated.

Bourguiba clearly [ citation needed ] wanted to undercut the religious establishment's ability to prevent his secularization program, and although he was careful to locate these changes within the framework of a modernist reading of Islam and presented them as the product of ijtihad independent interpretation and not a break with Islam, he became well known for his secularism.

John Esposito says that "For Bourguiba, Islam represented the past; the west was Tunisia's only hope for a modern future, but he was mistaken, Islam is modernization" [67]. Following increasing economic problems, Islamist movements came about in with the revival of religious teaching in Ez-Zitouna University and the influence which came from Arab religious leaders like Syrian and Egyptian Muslim Brotherhoods.

Ennahda Movementalso known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahda, is a moderate Islamist political party in Tunisia. Since then it has become the biggest and most well-organized party in Tunisia, so far outdistancing its more secular competitors.

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In the Tunisian Constituent Assembly election,the first honest election in the country's history with a turn out of Secularism in Egypt has had a very important role to play in both the history of Egypt and that of the Middle East. Egypt's first experience of secularism started with the British Occupation -the atmosphere which allowed propagation of western ideas.

In this environment, pro-secularist intellectuals like Ya'qub Sarruf, Faris Nimr, Nicola Haddad who sought political asylum from Ottoman Rule were able to publish their work. This debate had then become a burning issue with the work of Egyptian Shaykh Ali abd al-Raziq -"The most momentous document in the crucial intellectual and religious debate of modern Islamic history" [80].

ByEgypt had its first political secular entity called the Hizb 'Almani Secular Party this name was later changed to the Wafd party. It combined secular policies with a nationalist agenda and had the majority support in the following years against both the rule of the king and the British influence.

The Wafd party supported the allies during World War II and then proceeded to win the parliamentary elections, following these elections the prime minister was overthrown by the King leading to riots. These riots precipitated a military coup after which all political parties were banned including the Wafd and the Muslim Brotherhood. The government of Gamel Abdel Nasser was secularist-nationalist in nature which at the time gathers a great deal of support both in Egypt and other Arab states.

Key elements of Nasserism : [81]. Secular legacy of Nasser's dictatorship influenced dictatorial periods of Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak and secularists ruled Egypt until Egyptian revolution. Nevertheless, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has become one of the most influential movements in the Islamic worl particularly in the Arab world.

For many years it was described as "semi-legal" [82] and was the only opposition group in Egypt able to field candidates during elections. The process of secularization in Syria began under the French mandate in the s and went on continuously under different governments since the independence.

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Syria has been governed by the Arab nationalist Ba'ath Party since The Ba'ath government combined Arab socialism with secular ideology and an authoritarian political system. The constitution guarantees religious freedom for every recognized religious communities, including many Christian denominations. Political forms of Islam are not tolerated by the government. The Syrian legal system is primarily based on civil lawand was heavily influenced by the period of French rule. It is also drawn in part from Egyptian law of Abdel Nasser, quite from the Ottoman Millet system and very little from Sharia.

Syria has separate secular and religious courts. Civil and criminal cases are heard in secular courts, while the Sharia courts handle personal, family, and religious matters in cases between Muslims or between Muslims and non-Muslims. Following the military coup of 21 FebruaryReza Khan had established himself as the dominant political personality in the country. Fearing that their influence might be diminished, the clergy of Iran proposed their support and persuaded him to assume the role of the Shah.

He changed religious schools to secular schools, built Iran's first secular university and banned the hijab in public. Nevertheless, the regime became totally undemocratic and authoritarian with the removal of Majles power the first parliament in and the clampdown on free speech. However his plan to nationalize the colonial oil interests held by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, later British Petroleumattracted the ire of the United Kingdom.

Early in the history of the state of Pakistan 12 Marcha parliamentary resolution the Objectives Resolution was adopted, just a year after the death of Muhammad Ali Jinnahthe founder of Pakistan, in accordance with the vision of other founding fathers of Pakistan Muhammad IqbalLiaquat Ali Khan.

Sovereignty belongs to Allah alone but He has delegated it to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him as a sacred trust.

According to Pakistani secularists, this resolution differed from the Muhammad Ali Jinnah's 11th August Speech that he made in the Constitutive Assembly, but however, this resolution was passed by the rest of members in the assembly after Muhammad Ali Jinnah 's death in This resolution later became key source of inspiration for writers of Constitution of Pakistan and is included in constitution as preamble.

However, Pakistan is an Islamic republic, with Islam as the state religion; it has cts of secularism inherited from its colonial past.

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